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idl ny qo idXf sfQ!

 

- guridafl isMG

sLbd kosL dy bUhy qy

 

- surjIq pfqr

asIN itktF qy nftk kIqf

 

- ajmyr isMG aOlK

lohy dI bwkI

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

sfihq akfdmI ienfm imlx smyN dI Xfd

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

bdly rMg smyN dy / jy aff rfm nf huMdf

 

- bUtf isMG cOhfn

cwkI dy puVF ivwc ipsx coN svfd lYx dy idnIN

 

- suirMdr mMz

pMjfbI Bff df knyzf ivwc BivwK

 

- sfDU ibinMg

surjLmIn dI BfP

 

- ENkfrpRIq

ipMzoN-pfr-ipMz

 

- blbIr sMGyVf

bhuibD pRiqBf df mflk-prvysL syTI

 

- gurpRIq mfn

iPlm ngrI dy XfdF dy JroKy coN lVI- 2

 

- nvdIp sihdyv

nfvl dy nfl nfl

 

- svrn cMdn

icqRlyK / mrdfnf afieaf sI

 

- amrjIq cMdn

bfibaF dI Puwl ikrpf

 

- iekbfl mfhl

nIly qfiraF dI mOq

 

- joigMdr kYroN

mohVI

 

- pRym pRkf

kI jfxF mYN kOx

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

pMjfb dIaF sMGrsvfdI lihrF df isDFqk mulFkx

 

- bldyv dUhVy

cUhfdfnI

 

- gurdyv cOhfn

sLhId BfeI jgq isMG surisMG

 

- sohn isMG pUnI

DuMdlI ijhI Xfd rOilLaF dI

 

- igafnI sMqoK isMG

kihr jb tUtf KLudf KLudf krky

 

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suinhrI iknfrI vflf bwdl bnfm kuljIq mfn

 

- joigMdr bfT hOlYz

swq kivqfvF

 

- crnjIq isMG pMnU

jdo snmfn qo pihlf apmfn ho igaf.

 

- gurpRIq isMG qMgorI

 


pMjfbI Bff df knyzf ivwc BivwK

- sfDU ibinMg
 

 

myrI ieh gwlbfq koeI akfdimk aiBafs nhIN sgoN pMjfbI bolI leI icMqq ivakqI dy ivcfr hn. hor lokF vFg mYN vI ipCly kfPI lMmy smyN qoN pMjfbI dy knyzf ivwc pYr pwky krn leI XqnIl hF. iksy cI bfry BivwKbfxI krnf aMD ivvfsIaF df kMm hY. ivigafnk phuMc vfly lok mOjUdf siQqIaF aqy ruJfnF df pqf lfAuNdy hn aqy afAux vfly smyN leI axcfhy ruJfnF nUM bdlx leI qy siQqI nUM anukUl bxfAux leI amlI pwDr qy kdm cuwkdy hn. knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy BivwK dI gwl krn lwigaF vI sfnUM ieh phuMc hI apnfAuxI cfhIdI hY.
pMjfbI Bff dy BivwK sbMDI kuwJ vI kih skxf ies gwl qy inrBr krdf hY ik ies vyly asIN knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dIaF aMdrUnI aqy bfhrI siQqIaF nUM ikMnf ku brIkI ivwc smJdy hF aqy Aus dy aDfr qy kwlH bfry kI inrny krdy hF. ieh gwl iksy hor QF bfry kihxI fied sMBv nf hovy, pr knyzf bfry asIN kuwJ hwd qwk ies gwl dI afs kr skdy hF ik jy asIN pMjfbI bolI dy BivwK bfry gMBIrqf nfl kuwJ krIey qF cMgy iswty inwkl skdy hn.
so asl ivwc knyzf ivwc pMjfbI Bff df BivwK hux hY.
BfvyN ies ivwc koeI wk nhIN ik jdoN asIN pMjfbI bolI dI gwl krn lgdy hF qF sfzy sfhmxy byumfr nFh-pwKI msly af KVHdy hn. dovyN pMjfb sfzy vfsqy koeI vDIaf Auqfh dyx vflIaF AudfhrnF py nhIN kr rhy. pfiksqfn, jMmU kmIr, idwlI, hirafxf qy fied kuwJ hwd qwk cMzIgVH vI, ijwQy pMjfbIaF dI vsoN hY aqy lok pMjfbI boldy vrqdy vI hn AuWQy ividak aqy akfdimk hlikaF ivwc pMjfbI nUM iewk ho cuwkI bolI vjoN ilaf jf irhf hY. ienHF QfvF qy sMsikRq vFg pMjfbI ivwc AuWc-pwDrI izgrIaF qF idwqIaF jFdIaF hn pr CotIaF jmfqF ivwc bwicaF nUM ies bolI ivwc pVHfieaf nhIN jf irhf.
pMjfbI nUM hr jgHf drpy ies iksm dy sfry msly aslI hn aqy gMBIrqf nfl lYxy cfhIdy hn. pr ijwQy qwk knyzf df sbMD hY, pMjfbI Bff df vrqmfn vDIaf hY. ies krky ies vyly rUrI hY ik asIN ies siQqI nUM shI arQF ivwc smJIey qy Aus anusfr afAux vfly smyN vfsqy kuwJ PYsly krIey qy Pyr AunHF muqfbk kMm krIey.
mYN afpxI gwlbfq nUM moty qOr qy iqMn ihwisaf ivwc vMizaf hY. pihlf; pMjfbI BfeIcfry dIaF aMdrUnI siQqIaF, dUjf; knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy ivkfs dIaF sMBfvnfvF qy aKIr ivwc kI kIqf jfxf cfhIdf hY.
aMdrUnI siQqIaF
knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dI hoNd ipCly 110 sflF qoN hY. ies AuWqy sB qoN vwD asr iemIgryn ny pfieaf hY. ipClI sdI dy urU sflF 1903 qoN 1907 dOrfn pMjfbI kfPI vwzI igxqI ivwc eyQy afey pr Pyr nslI kfrnF vws ienHF df eyQy afAuxf lMmy smyN qwk amlI qOr qy bMd irhf. 1960ivaF dy awD qoN lY ky pMjfbIaF dI afmd ivwc vfDf huMdf irhf hY aqy hux knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI igxqI pwKoN cOQy nMbr qy hY1 .
ipCly dhfikaF dOrfn pMjfbI BfeIcfry ny afpxy afp nUM eyQy isafsI qy afriQk qOr qy sQfpq kr ilaf hY aqy nqIjy vjoN pMjfbI bolI ny vI qrwkI kIqI hY. knyzf dy vwzy kyNdrF vYnkUvr, trFto, kYlgrI, aYzmMtn afid ivwc ibjleI qy ipRMt mIzIey rfhIN pMjfbI bolI ivwc byumfr srgrmIaF ho rhIaF hn. pMjfbI lokF aqy bolI AuWpr ienHF srgrmIaF dy do iswDy asr pey hn. pihlf asr mnoivigafnk hY ijs nfl lokF dy svY-mfx aqy svY-Brosy ivwc XkInn vfDf hoieaf hY. pMjfb dy pyNzU ipCokV coN afey hoey lok pihlI vfrI ryzIE, tYlIivXn, iPlm aqy ieMtrnYWt vrgy kqIflI mIzIey nUM afpxy kMtrol ivwc mihsUs kr rhy hn. Auh afpxI mrI nfl pRogrfmF df PYslf krdy hn qy mrI nfl hI AunHF nUM py krdy hn. ies nfl mIzIey ivwc vrqI jFdI bolI afm lokF dI bolI dy nyVy hoeI hY. ryzIE, tYlIivXn dyKx suxn vfilaF nUM ies gwl df aihsfs hoieaf hY ik gwlbfq AunHF dI afpxI jfxI pCfxI bolI ivwc ho rhI hY. iewk afm pMjfbI sOK nfl Pon rfhIN ryzIE qy gwl kr skdf hY. ijs pwDr qwk ieh gwl knyzf ivwc sMBv hoeI hY, nf pMjfb ivwc qy nf hI hor ikqy dyKx nUM imldI hY. BfvyN ieh srgrmIaF afpxy pihly pVfa ivwc hn aqy ies ivwc anykF AUxqfeIaF hn pr ies ivwc pMjfbI bolI vfsqy Auh sfrIaF sMBfvnfvF CupIaF hoeIaF hn jo asIN aMgRyI jF hor ivkisq bolIaF dy mIzIey ivwc dyKdy suxdy hF.
dUjf muwK asr afriQk hY. BfvyN ajy vI kfPI lok ryzIE, tYlIivXn aqy aKbfrF ivwc vlMtIar qOr qy afpxf Xogdfn pfAuNdy hn pr hux ienHF srgrmIaF ivwc lwgy lok afpxI roI rotI vI kmf rhy hn. jdoN afriQkqf iksy srgmrI df ihwsf bx jfvy qF Aus srgrmI dy cldy rihx dy mOky vwD jFdy hn. eysy iksm df ivkfs pMjfbI sMgIq qy iPlm ivwc vI ho irhf hY. ieh dovyN iewk nvyN AudXog vjoN AuWBr rhy hn ijs AuWpr Kud pMjfbIaF df kbf hY. ienHF AudXogF nfl Kfs qOr qy pMjfbI bolI dy pYr jMm rhy hn aqy ies dI Aumr ivwc ibnF wk vfDf ho irhf hY. ipCly kuwJ sflF dOrfn pMjfbIaF df mnprcfvf krn vfly anykF nvyN nFa AuWBr ky sfhmxy afey hn. ieh Auh srgrmIaF hn ijnHF sdkf pMjfbIaF dIaF aglIaF pIVHIaF vI pMjfbI bolI qy siBafcfr nfl juV rhIaF hn.
bfhrI siQqIaF
AuWprlI sMKyp crcf qoN fihr hY ik knyzf ivwc pMjfbI BfeIcfry ny aqy nqIjy vjoN pMjfbI bolI ny shI idf vwl ivkfs kIqf hY. hux kuwJ crcf knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy ivkfs dIaF sMBfvnfvF bfry kIqI jfvygI. ijwQy qwk pMjfbI bolI nUM kOmI pwDr qy mfnqf idvfAux dI gwl hY, ieh mslf kfPI guMJldfr hY ikAuNik ieh isrP pMjfbI bolI df hI mslf nhIN sgoN knyzy ivwc ies vyly bolIaF jfx vflIaF 147 bolIaF nfl bwJf hoieaf hY. ies sbMDI bhuq sfrI Koj qy ivcfr vtFdry dI loV hY. mYN eyQy isrP kuwJ motIaF motIaF gwlF vwl hI iefrf kr skFgf ijhVIaF knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy ivkfs ivwc rukfvt pf skdIaF hn jF shfeI ho skdIaF hn.
knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy ivkfs dIaF sMBfvnfvF nUM smJx leI ieMglYNz dy pMjfbIaF sfhmxy afey msilaF vwl iDafn mfrnf shfeI ho skdf hY. drn isMG qfqlf vloN sMpfd kIqI pusqk brqfnIaF ivwc pMjfbI
Bff (1996) ivwc pMjfbI dy bhuq sfry lyKkF aqy aiDafpkF dy lyK hn jo dUjy siBafcfrF aqy bolIaF pRqI ieMglYNz dIaF nslvfdI nIqIaF dI gwl krdy hn. mYN afpxy pihly kuwJ lyKF ivwc ienHF dI crcf kr cuwikaf hF ies krky mYN ivsQfr ivwc nhIN jfvFgf. eyQy ieh gwl kihxI kfPI hY ik aYlfnIaF qOr `qy iewk bhu-siBafcfrk mulk hox kfrn knyzy dIaF siQqIaF ieMglYNz nfloN vwKrIaF hn. iewk pwDr `qy bhu-siBafcfrk hox df mqlb hY ik iewQy sfry siBafcfrF nUM vDx Puwlx df iewko ijhf mOkf imldf hY. kuwJ hwd qwk ieh gwl TIk hY pr ijwQoN qwk dUjIaF bolIaF dI sFB sMBfl jF ivkfs df sbMD hY knyzf df ieh vwKrfpn BulyKf pfAU hY aqy nuksfndyh hY.
ieh gwl afm mMnI jFdI hY ik siBafcfr aqy bolI df afpsI sbMD siBafcfr dy bfkI sfry aMgF nfloN gUVHf huMdf hY. pr knyzy df bhu-siBafcfr ies scfeI nUM mMnx qoN ienkfrI hY. aMgRyI aqy PrFsIsI qoN ibnF bfkI dIaF sfrIaF bolIaF nUM knyzf ivwc ivdyI bolIaF mMinaF jFdf hY. knyzf ivwc PYzrl pwDr qy jd vI bolIaF jF bolIaF bfry nIqI dI gwl huMdI hY qF Auh isrP do srkfrI bolIaF dI hI huMdI hY. knyzf ivwc pIar trUzo smyN 1969 ivwc pihlf afPIIal lYNgUeyj aYkt pfs kIqf igaf sI ijs nUM 1988 ivwc soiDaf igaf. knyzf dIaF do srkfrI BffvF qoN ibnF iksy hor bfn df Aus ivwc ikr nhIN hY. knyzf ivwc jdoN Gwt igxqI bfn dy hwkF dI gwl huMdI hY qF Auh aMgRyI boldy ielfky ivwc PrFsIsI bolI huMdI hY qy PrFsIsI boldy ielfky ivwc aMgRyI huMdI hY.
knyzf ivwc doBfI isrP Aus nUM hI mMinaF jFdf hY ijhVf aMgRyI qy PrFsIsI dovyN srkfrI BffvF boldf hovy. ies ihsfb nfl knyzf ivwc 83% lok isrP iewk hI bfn bolx vfly hn. PYzrl srkfr ienHF do srkfrI bolIaF dy ivkfs vfsqy vwzI pwDr qy XojnfvF bxfAuNdI hY aqy pYsy KrcdI hY. Audfhrn vjoN, jUn 2008 ivwc srkfr ny iewk rozmYp Pfr ilMguiesitk zuaYiltI ien kYnyzf 2008-2013 rIlI kIqf. ies anusfr ienHF pMjF sflF ivwc srkfr ny 1[ 1 iblIan zflr ienHF bolIaF dy ivkfs leI vwKry vwKry BfeIcfiraF ivwc Krcxy hn2 . ienHF pYisaF df ienHF bolIaF AuWpr ividak adfiraf rfhIN Krc hox vfly pYsy nfl koeI sbMD nhIN.
dunIaF ivwc bhu-BffvI mulk hn ijnHF ivwc vwKrIaF vwKrIaF Bff nIqIaF hn aqy Auh mulk ivwc bolIaF jFdIaF Gwt igxqI bolIaF nUM vI mfnqf idMdy hn. XUrp dy bhuq sfry mulkF ivwc Gwt igxqI bolIaF dI hoNd nUM vI sivkfiraf jFdf hY. Audfhrn vjoN, ijpsIaF dI Bff romnI, XUrp dy drjn qoN vwD mulkF - afstRIaf, cYkoslvfkIaf, jrmnI, mONtInYgro, nYdrlYNz, nOrvya, polYNz, romfnIaf, srbIaf, slovfkIaf, slovfnIaf, svIzn - ivwc iewk Gwt igxqI dI bolI vjoN mMnI geI hY. ies pwKoN Bfrq vI sfzy leI iewk Audfhrn hY ijwQy zyZ drjn qoN AuWqy bolIaF srkfrI hox df drjf rwKdIaF hn. knyzf dI 32 imlIan dI abfdI ivwc hux vwzI igxqI srkfrI bolIaF qoN ielfvf dUjIaF bolIaF bolx vflI hY. iewk bhu-siBafcfrk mulk hox dy bfvjUd dUjIaF bolIaF nUM ijs qrHF knyzf mfnqf dyx qoN ienkfrI hY, ieh afpxy afp ivwc hYrfnI vflI gwl hY. pr afs dI ikrn ies gwl ivwc hY ik hux Gwto Gwt knyzf dy afidvfsI lokF dIaF bolIaF pRqI srkfrI nIqI ivwc kuwJ Prk dyKx nUM imldf hY. Audfhrn vjoN, nunfivwq ivwc aMgRyI aqy PrFsIsI dy nfl ienukqIquq vI srkfrI Bff df drjf rwKdI hY aqy nOrQvYst tYrytrI ivwc aMgRyI aqy PrFsIsI dy nfl nON afidvfsI BffvF vI srkfrI drjf rwKdIaF hn.
AuWprlI crcf qoN ieh gwl sfhmxy afAuNdI hY ik knyzf dI PYzrl srkfr qoN pMjfbI bolI dI sFB sMBfl jF ivkfs ivwc ajy koeI afs nhIN rwKI jf skdI. ies gwl nfl koeI Prk nhIN pYNdf ik pMjfbI ies vyly knyzf ivwc qy knyzy dI pfrlImYNt ivwc cOQy nMbr qy hY jF ies nUM knyzf dy ivkfs ivwc afpxf Xogdfn pfAuNidaF sdI qoN vwD smF ho igaf hY. pr ijwQy kOmI pwDr qy pMjfbI nUM mfnqf dI gwl ajy dUr df suPnf lwgdI hY3 , AuWQy sUibaF dI pwDr qy siQqI vwKrI hY. knyzf dy ividak ZFcy ivwc ividaf sbMDI PYsly krn df hwk sUibaF dy kol hY. ies dy aDfr qy hI asIN bI sI ivwc Kfs krky, pMjfbI vfsqy kuwJ hwk hfsl krn ivwc kfmXfb hoey hF aqy afAux vfly smyN ivwc ho skdy hF.
kI krn dI loV hY?
trFto ivKy 1998 nUM hoeI pMjfbI kFnPrMs vyly mYN knyzf ivwc pMjfbI Bff aqy ies df BivwK nF df iewk Koj pwqr py kIqf sI. Aus pypr dy aKIr ivwc kI krn dI loV hY? dy AuWp-isrlyK Qwly iqMn suJfa rwKy sn - (A) afpxI sUJ aqy phuMc nUM nvIaF siQqIaF dy hfx df bxfAuxf; (a) nvIN sUJ dy afDfr AuWqy jQybMdk ZFcf kfiem krnf; (e) aglI pIVHI nUM jwdo-jihd ivwc fml krnf.
knyzf dy dUijaF ihwisaF bfry qF mYN bhuqf kuwJ kih nhIN skdf pr bI sI ivwc qy Kfs kr vYnkUvr qy Pryr vYlI sbMDI mYN afpxy kuwJ qjrby sFJy kr skdf hF. vYnkUvr qy afs pfs dy ielfikaF ivwc pMjfbI lYNgUeyj aYjUkyn aYsosIeyn (plI) nF dI jQybMdI rfhIN asIN kuwJ hwd qwk ienHF suJfvF qoN syD lYx dI ko kIqI hY aqy nqIjy vjoN kuwJ pRfpqIaF vI hoeIaF hn.
bI sI dI srkfr ny 1994 ivwc afpxI ividaf nIqI ivwc dUjI Bff vjoN pVHfeIaF jfx vflIaF bolIaF ivwc pMjfbI vI fiml kIqI sI. ies mOky qoN ijMnf lfhf ilaf jf skdf sI Auh qF sMBv nhIN hoieaf pr Pyr vI pRfpqI ikrXog hY. ies vyly bI sI ivwc pMjfbIaF dI vsoN vfly QfvF qy aqy Kfs kr srHI qy aYbtsPorz ivwc aYlImYNtrI aqy hfeI skUlF ivwc pMjfbI pVHfeI jf rhI hY. srHI siQwq kvFtiln pOlIitkink XUnIvristI ivwc vI ipCly cfr ku sfl qoN pMjfbI dI pVHfeI cwl rhI hY qy afs kIqI jFdI hY ik ieh adfrf pMjfbI ivwc izgrI qwk dI pVHfeI urU kry. XU bI sI ivwc 1987 qoN lgfqfr pMjfbI pVHfeI jf rhI hY qy AuWQy vI ies iksm dI afs hY ik pMjfbI dI pVHfeI izgrI qwk phuMc jfvy. sfeImn Pryr XUnIvristI aqy Pryr vYlI XUnIvristI aYbtsPorz vI pMjfbI dIaF jmfqF df pRbMD krdIaF hn. iswK sMsQfvF vloN clfey jf rhy pbilk skUlF ivwc vI pMjfbI pVHfeI jFdI hY. ienHF sfry adfiraF ivwc hr sfl iqMn hfr qoN AuWpr ividafrQI iksy nf iksy pwDr qy pMjfbI bolI pVHnI qy ilKxI iswKdy hn. ies pVHfeI df AunHF nUM dUjIaF bolIaF dI pVHfeI vFg hI krYizt imldf hY. nfl hI Auh ividafrQI ijhVy pMjfb qoN pVH ky afey hox jF ijnHF ny iewQy afpxy GrF jF gurdvfiraF afid ivwc pMjfbI pVHI hovy Auh gryz bfrHF dy iemiqhfn dy skdy hn aqy dUjIaF bolIaF vFg hI AunHF nUM XUnIvristI vloN mfnqf imldI hY.
bI sI dy ividak Kyqr dI sB qoN vwD gOlxXog pRfpqI knyzf ivwc jMmy py Auh nOjvfn aiDafpk qy aiDafpkfvF hn jo ies vyly ienHF skUlF, kfljF aqy XUnIvristIaF ivwc pVHf rhy hn. ienHF ny Kud pMjfbI iewk dUjI Bff vjoN pVHnI qy ilKxI iswKI hY aqy ies krky Auh ies nUM dUjI Bff vjoN pVHfAux vfsqy fied sB qoN vwD ZuwkvyN aiDafpk hn. BivwK nUM iDafn ivwc rwKidaF ijhVI sB qoN mhwqvpUrn gwl hY, Auh hY ik ienHF aiDafpkF ivwcoN kuwJ lok pMjfbI bolI leI aYkitivst bx rhy hn. plI ivwc ienHF ivwcoN kuwJ aiDafpk srgrmI nfl ihwsf lYNdy hn. iewDr jMmy py hox kfrn ienHF nUM iewQoN dy ZFcy bfry pMjfb ivwcoN afey lokF nfloN iafdf sUJ hY. pMjfbI bolI sbMDI ijs iksm dIaF nFh-pwKI gwlF dy ikfr pMjfb ivwc lok ho jFdy hn eyQoN dy jMmp AunHF qoN vI mukq huMdy hn. ieh nOjvfn kuwJ hwd qwk pMjfb ivwc jMmy py aiDafpkF nfloN afpxy ikwqy pRqI vI vwKrI phuMc rwKdy hn. ieh sfrIaF gwlF bI sI ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy ivkfs ivwc bVIaF sfriQk iswD ho rhIaF hn qy hoxgIaF.
ipCly pMdrF vIh sflF dOrfn plI aqy hor jQybMdIaF vloN pMjfbI mIzIey rfhIN pMjfbI bolI dI pVHfeI vfsqy jo lgfqfr crcf huMdf irhf hY Aus nfl afm lokF dI pMjfbI pRqI phuMc ivwc vI Prk afieaf hY. hux lok afpxy bwicaF nUM skUlF ivwc pMjfbI pVHfAux dy PYsly qoN pihlF ijMny zrdy nhIN. ies ivwc bhuqf asr ies gwl nfl ipaf hY ik ividak adfiraF ivwc pMjfbI pVHn vfly ividafrQIaF nUM nOkrIaF lYx smyN pMjfbI jfnx nfl nOkrI imlx ivwc shfieqf ho rhI hY. dUjy pfsy hfeI skUl ivwc PrFsIsI jF spynI iswKx nfl ieh gwl nhIN vfprdI ikAuNik srHI jF aYbtsPorz ivwc ienHF bolIaF nUM bolx vfly lokF dI igxqI nhIN hY.
ies dy nfl hI ividak adfiraF ivwc pMjfbI pVH rhy ividafrQIaF nUM hux afpxI iswKI hoeI pMjfbI BfeIcfry awgy py kr skx dy mOky vI imlxy urU ho gey hn. hux XU bI sI vrgy ividak adfry aqy plI vrgIaF BfeIcfry dIaF jQybMdIaF ieho ijhy PMknF df pRbMD krn lwg peIaF hn ijwQy ividafrQIaF dy Bfx mukfbly, lyK ilKx dy mukfbly afid krvfey jFdy hn aqy ividafrQIaF nUM ienfm snmfn idwqy jFdy hn.
pMjfbI bolI nUM dUjIaF BffvF vFg skUl smyN dOrfn pVHfieaf jfxf ky aqy brfbr df krYizt imlxf aqy nfl hI BfeIcfry ivwcoN ies pVHfeI leI mfnqf, ieh sB r ky ividafrQIaF dy pMjfbI bolI nfl nfqy nUM gUVHf krn ivwc shfeI ho rhy hn. ieh kihxf qF ajy sMBv nhIN ik ienHF ividafrQIaF ivcoN kuwJ pMjfbI sfihq nfl vI juVngy jF pMjfbI ivwc sfihq rcnf krnI urU kr dyxgy pr ies iksm dIaF sMBvnfvF pYdf rUr ho rhIaF hn. ipCly do ku sflF dOrfn pMjfbI dy ividafrQIaF vloN kuwJ PMknF ivwc kIqIaF pykfrIaF dyK sux ky aijhI afs bwJx lwgI hY.
ieh AuWprlI jfxkfrI sFJI krn df myrf mksd iehI hY ik sUby dI pwDr qy aglIaF pIVHIaF nUM pMjfbI nfl joVn dy mOky pYdf kIqy jf skdy hn. aOntYrIE bfry mYnUM jfxkfrI nhIN hY pr albrtf ivwc vI kuwJ bI sI vrgf hI vfpiraf hY. albrtf, ijs nUM afm qOr qy kfPI swjy-pwKI sUbf smiJaf jFdf hY aqy bhuq sfrIaF gwlF ivwc hY vI, AuWQy dUjIaF bolIaF pRqI rvweIey pwKoN Auh sUbf bhuq agFhvDU sfbq hoieaf hY. sUby dI srkfr ny kfPI hwd qwk Kud hI pMjfbI dI pVHfeI vfsqy sfry loVINdy pRbMD kIqy hn. mYN ipCly do iqMn sfl qoN AunHF df slybs afid bxfAux ivwc kuwJ hwd qwk fml irhf hF. ies qoN awgy bhuqI ijMmyvfrI pMjfbI lokF dy isr af pYNdI hY ik Auh ies imly mOky df ikMnf ku Pfiedf AuTfAuNdy hn. myrI jfxkfrI anusfr ies smyN aYzmMtn ivwc do hfeI skUl aqy do aYilmYNtrI skUl pMjfbI pVHf rhy hn aqy XUnIvristI afP albrtf ivwc vI pMjfbI dy do lYvl pVHfey jf rhy hn. ienHF sMsQfvF ivwc zyZ pOxy do sO dy krIb ividarQI pMjfbI iswK rhy hn. pr Audfs krn vflI gwl ieh hY ik bhuq sfry pMjfbIaF nUM ies imly mOky bfry fied jfxkfrI vI nhIN hY. kYlgrI, ijwQy sfzy bhuq sfry lyKk vI rih rhy hn ajy qwk ies mOky df Pfiedf nhIN AuTfieaf jf sikaf.
myry iKafl ivwc smwisaf dI jVH ajy vI sfzI afpxI soc ivwc hY. Audfhrn vjoN, aglI pIVHI nUM pMjfbI pVHfAux sbMDI bhuq sfrIaF gwlF bfry sfzI sfiraF dI smJ iewko ijhI nhIN hY. ies ivwc koeI wk nhIN ik ividaf bfry Koj ieh kihMdI hY muwZlI ividaf bwcy nUM Aus dI mF-bolI ivwc hI imlxI cfhIdI hY. pr asIN knyzf vsdy pMjfbI mfipaF dy ies iPkr nfl sihmq hF ik ies qrHF AunHF dy bwcy ies smfj ivwc pwCV jfxgy. asIN ies gwl qy hmyF or idMdy hF ik sfzy bwcy aMgRyI ivwc iksy qoN vI ipwCy nf rihx. pr ajoky smyN df XQfrQ ieh hY ik iewk qoN vwD bfnF jfnx vflf ivakqI dUijaF nfloN vwD sPl hox dy mOky rwKdf hY. ies nUM iDafn c rwK ky knyzf dy ividak adfry ividafrQIaF nUM muwK bolI dy nfl nfl iewk dUjI Bff vI isKfAuNdy hn. knyzIan srkfr aqy ividak adfiraF dI ko ieh hY ik aMgRyI dy nfl PrFsIsI qy PrFsIsI dy nfl aMgRyI hI dUjI Bff vjoN pVHfeI jfvy. asIN ieh kih rhy hF ik aMgRyI dy nfl sfzy bwicaF leI dUjI Bff vjoN pMjfbI pVHnI hr pwKoN lfhyvMd gwl hY. jy asIN knyzf ivwc pMjfbI BfeIcfry dy BivwK bfry socIey qF lgdf nhIN ik afAux vfly pMjfh jF sO sfl ivwc ies dI hoNd Kqm ho jfvygI. jy sfnUM XkIn hY ik pMjfbI BfeIcfry dI hoNd CyqI Kqm nhIN hoxI qF Pyr aglI pIVHI nUM pMjfbI iswKfAux dI gwl smJxI aOKI nhIN hoxI cfhIdI. inrsMdyh sfzy Auh bwcy iafdf kfmXfb rihxgy ijhVy aMgRyI dy nfl pMjfbI vI jfxdy hoxgy.
keI vfrI sUeI ies gwl qy aV jFdI hY ik pMjfbI nUM sFBx df iewko iewk qrIkf Gr ivwc bwicaF nfl pMjfbI bolx df hY. qy ies qoN awgy ikhf jFdf hY jF axikhf Cwz idwqf jFdf hY ik Gr qoN bfhr pMjfbI df rOlf pfAux dI koeI quk nhIN hY. ieh gwl smwisaf vflI hY. pihlI gwl qF ieh ik hr Gr ivwc ieh gwl vfprnI sMBv nhIN ik bwcy pMjfbI iswK jfx. jy ieh gwl TIk vI hovy qF nfl hI awj kwlH qF bwcy aMgRyI vI bolxI iswK lYNdy hn Pyr aMgRyI dI pVHfeI AuWpr eynf byumfr pYsf ikAuN Kricaf jFdf hY. clo iewk bolI pVHfAux dI loV qF mMn leI knyzf ivwc dUjI Bff isKfAux qy eynf Krc ikAuN kIqf jf irhf hY. sfzy leI ieh gwlF socx vflIaF hn. sfnUM Kud hI afpxI bolI nUM ipwCy nhIN Dwkxf cfhIdf. jy asIN iemfndfrI nfl zUMGf socIey qF sMBv hY ik gulfmI dy asrF vfly kuwJ ivcfr sfzy aMdr ajy vI Cupy hox ijnHF muqfbk asIN afpxI bolI nUM isrP bolcfl qwk hI loVINdI hoxf smJdy hoeIey.
AuWpr mYN isrP do hI AudfhrnF ivcfrIaF hn. ijMnf icr asIN Kud ienHF gwlF bfry sfP nhIN huMdy AunHF icr asIN pUry Auqfh nfl koeI kdm nhIN cuwkFgy. pr zr ies gwl df hY ik ies kMm ivwc jy asIN hor smF nt kIqf qF sMBv hY ik asIN mOkf guaf bYTIey. ijhVI sfzy kol ies vyly isafsI qy afriQk qfkq hY rUrI nhIN ik ieh sdf rhy. rUrI nhIN ik pMjfbI bolI df knyzf ivwc cOQy nMbr df sQfn sdf bixaf rhy.
jy asIN knyzf ivwc pMjfbI bolI dy BivwK bfry shI mYinHaF ivwc icMqf krdy hF qF sfnUM hux hI kuwJ kdm puwtxy pYxgy. myry ivcfr anusfr pihlf kdm hY ik asIN ies gwl nUM mMnx lwgIey ik asIN knyzIan hF pr pMjfbI vI hF, iblkul Ausy qrHF ijvyN Bfrq ivwc asIN BfrqI hF pr pMjfbI vI. jy afpxy Drm nUM qy BMgVy nUM eyQy kfiem rwKx ivwc asIN mfx mihsUs krdy hF qF ieh mfx pMjfbI bolI leI vI Auho ijhf hI hoxf cfhIdf hY. sfnUM pRyrnf leI pMjfb vwl iblkul nhIN dyKxf cfhIdf qy nf hI ies gwl ivwc koeI vfDU mfx mihsUs krnf cfhIdf hY ik asIN pMjfb qoN bfhr rih ky vI pMjfbI bolI leI socdy hF, kMm krdy hF. sB qoN vwD guwsf krn vflI gwl sfzy leI ieh hoxI cfhIdI hY ik jdoN koeI sfnUM pMjfb igaF nUM jF pMjfb qoN koeI iewDr afieaf ieh khy ik qusIN knyzf ivwc eyny msrUP huMidaF vI pMjfbI nUM nhIN ivsfiraf. kI koeI jhf dy sPr nfl eynf bdl skdf hY ik Auh sPr dy dUjy pfsy AuqridaF hI afpxI mF nUM Buwl jfvy. eydF dy lok vI hoxgy, pr sfnUM AunHF vl byloVf iDafn dyx dI loV nhIN hY. sfzy leI Auh lok hI mhwqvpUrn hn ijhVy axsuKfvIaF siQqIaF ivwc vI afpxf rMg rUp sihjy nf bdlx.
afpxI bolI pRqI sfzy mnF aMdr lukIaF bhuq sfrIaF gwlF bfhr kwZx dI loV hY. dunIaF ivwc ies vyly bhuq vwzy vwzy msly hn - vfqfvrn, grIbI, lVfeI, bImfrIaF afid. aijhy msilaF dy huMidaF bolI dI gwl krn vfilaF nUM keI vfrI sImq buwDI vfly vI smiJaf jFdf hY. PY aihmd PY df ieh yar aOr vI gm hY mfny myN iewk muhwbq ky isvfa suxf ky kUJ lok Kud surKrU mihsUs krdy hn. ijwQy dUjy msly mhwqvpUrn hn, AuWQy afpxI bolI nUM bcfAuxf vI mhwqvpUrn mslf hY Kfs kr ies vyly jdoN ivvIkrn dy or Qwly aMgryI bolI dIaF sfmrfjI nIqIaF dunIaF dIaF hfrF bolIaF vfsqy Kqrf bx rhIaF hn.
mYN apxy ijs 1998 vfly pypr df AuWpr ikr kIqf hY, Aus ivwc bhuq sfry msly ivcfry sn ijvyN ik pMjfbI nUM sFBx dI loV ikAuN hY? , sfzy eyQy jMpp rhy bwcy pMjfbI ikAuN pVHn? , ieh AunHF dy ikhVy kMm afvygI? kI pMjfbI AunHF dI mfq-Bff hY? , iek qoN vwD Bff iswKx nfl nuksfn huMdf hY ik Pfiedf? , bwicaF nUM pMjfbI pVHfAux dI ijMmyvfrI mfipaF dI hY jF srkfr dI? afid. myry iKafl ivwc ieh jF pMjfbI bolI nfl sbMDq ieho ijhy hor msilaF AuWpr ajy hor Koj aqy lgfqfr gMBIr ivcfr vtFdry dI loV hY qF ik afAux vfly smyN vfsqy Tos kdm cuwky jf skx.


1 knyzf dI kul afbfdI ies vyly 33 imlIan dy duafly hY[ bolIaF df sQfn ies qrHF hY: aMgRyjLI 67.1%; PrFsIsI 21.5%; cInI 2.6%; pMjfbI 0.8%; spynI 0.7%; ietYlIan 0.6%; arbI 0.5%.
2
 Ref. http://culturalpolicies.net/web/canada.php?aid=422 
3 asIN bI sI ivc ipCly swq sflF qoN aMqrrfsLtrI mF-bolI idn mnfAuNdy af rhy hF aqy hr sfl asIN ieh mMg duhrf rhy hF ik pMjfbI nUM knyzf ivc iek knyzIan bolI vjoN mfnqf imlxI cfhIdI hY[ sfzy PMksLnF ivc hr rMg dy isafsI lok vI afey huMdy hn pr ajy qwk iksy vI isafsI nyqf ny ieh muwdf AuTfAux df hONslf nhIN kIqf.