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sMpfdkI / Bgq isMG nUM Xfd kridaF

gwl sux afQxy nI
(pRo: mohn isMG dI ijLMdgI dI sLfm)

 

- surjIq pfqr

Ausqfd Xmlf jI dI sMgq ivwc

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

sLrfPq ik zr?

 

- hrpRIq syKf

jf nIN rotIey KotIey kI kIqf

 

- amIn milk (lMdn)

jMmU df kuqb mInfr

 

- zf[ blijMdr nsrflI

afpxy kOx huMdy ny?

 

- sMdIp Dnoaf

ikMqU
bwly Auey gurdfs mfnF: Bgq isMG dI vizafeI jF Bgq isMG df mKOl?

 

- gurpRIq isMG

CiVaF dI pYlI ivc Zwtf crY

 

- joigMdr bfT hOlYNz

jMglLI jfnvrF bfry pMjfbIaF dIaF gLlq DfrnfvF

 

- jsivMdr sMDU

klf sMgIq df irsLqf

 

- myjr mFgt

bloc nfl XfrI

 

- lwK krnflvI

Bfrq qy pfiksqfn dI sFJI ivrfsq-tYkslf

 

- hrbIr isMG BMvr

DIaF dI dunIaF

 

- zf[ suirMdrpfl isMG mMz

lVIvfr (axCipaf) nfvl
prfieaf Dn

 

- sfDU isMG DfmI

vrjxfvF kOx AulMGdf hY!
 

- blivMdr gryvfl

awDI sdI pihlF dy, myry ipMz dy CVy

 

- guridafl dlfl

Bq isMG dI vfpsI

 

- rfjpfl bopfrfey

afp dIaF kuwJ bfp dIaF

 

- jI[ iswDU[ ihMmqpurf

jdoN Blf krdy krdy mYN gflHF Kf bYTf

 

- surjIq Bgq pwqrkfr

lyKf mFvF DIaF df

 

- iekbfl mfhl

nIly qfiraF dI mOq

 

joigMdr kYroN (zf)

pfqsLfh
 

- suKjIq

njLm

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

sPr qoN pihlF - iDafn nfl, iDafn krn Xog

 

- kyhr sLrIPL

gIq:
mF bolI dy puwq pMjfbI

 

- kml kMg

kI rwb iewk qoN vwD hn ?

 

- gurrn isMG ksyl

hfs-ivaMg
zflr-zflr krdI nI mY

 

- blijMdr sMGf

kuwK df kql (khfxI)

 

- irI gulftI

aMqrrfsLtrI mfq-BfsLf idvs aqy zf: virafm isMG sMDU df snmfn

quhfzy KLq
 

 


lVIvfr( axCipaf )nfvl
prfieaf Dn
- sfDU isMG DfmI
 

 

phuMc
Kym isMG aqy Auhdy sfQI pwqJV dy sLurUafqI idnF ivwc vYnkUvr puwjy. sUrj dI Duwp cmkIlI aqy iehnIN idnIN ies dIaF ikrnF kUlIaF aqy kosIaF sn. sLihr dIaF ivsLfl pfrkF aqy inwjI bgIcy hry kcUr sn. kqfrF qy hor rUpfkfrF ivwc lfeIaF gulfb dIaF ikafrIaF hfly vI PuwlF nfl lihlhf rhIaF sn aqy vwK-vwK rMgF ivwc iKVy zylIey afpxI inrflI sLfn ivwc JUm rhy sn. pwqJV ny kuJ ruwKF dy pwiqaF df rs cUs ilaf sI aqy mOsmI drKLqF ny afpxy rMg bdlxy sLurU kr idwqy sn. kuJ PLl qoVy jf cuwky sn prMqU sybF dy ruwKF dIaF sLfKLF hfly vI lfl-sUhy aqy hlky pIly PLlF nfl lwdIaF peIaF sn. sdfbhfr kyloN dy ruwKF ivwc KVy qy sLfn nfl JUldy pOplrF dy pwqy Kwty-pIly ho gey sn. hvf dy qyjL buwly AuhnF dy gol pqly pwiqaF nUM hvf ivwc mKIl dy JurmtF vFg Auzf ky qy PLyr bVI nrmI nfl DrqI dy ivCf rhy sn.
vYnkUvr sLihr bVf sohxf hY. pRIqo dy mUMhoN afp-muhfry hI inkilaf sI.
jy qYnUM eynf hI sohxf lwgdf hY, myrI nfjo qF afpF eyQy hI rhFgy.
pr iPLr BI qYnUM ieh mYN huxy hI dws dynF ik CyqI hI DuMd aqy kxIaF dI PLuhfr ny sfry mfhOl nUM iPLwkf aqy gLmgIn jyhf bxf dyxf hY.
pr hfl dI GVI qF ieh bhuq sohxY Ausny afpxI eyQy rihx dI locf nUM pRgt krdI ny ikhf.
sfry jwQy ny kuJ idn vYnkUvr ivwc iekwiTaF rihx df PLYslf kIqf. jwsf isMG ny virafm isMG aqy ibsLn isMG dohF nUM hI afpxy kol rihx dI dfavq idwqI. ibsLn isMG iewk srdf-puwjdf vpfrI sI jo sLihr dy bhuq sfry gfhkF nUM suwkf bflx muhweIaf kiraf krdf sI. Auh qIjy pwCmI mfrg qy siQq iewk vwzy aqy Kuwly zuwlHy Gr ivwc rihMdf sI. iesdf ivhVf bVf moklf sI ijs ivwc Auh qfjLf kwtI lwkV nfl Bry afpxy trwk KilHafr ky bVy bVy tfl lf ky lwkVF suwkxIaF pfieaf krdf sI. Ausny bflx pRfpq krn leI vwzIaF vwzIaF lwkV imwlF nfl Tyky kIqy hoey sn, ijwQy qyjL GuMmdIaF cynF rfhIN iCwlIaF qrfsLIaF lwkVF dy COVy aqy lwkV df bUrf imwl ivwcoN iswDf jf ky lohy dIaF vwzIaF vwzIaF BwTIaF ivwc gLrk hoeI jFdf sI.
Kym isMG aqy pRIqo iewk dUsry dosq kol Tihry sn jo dUjy pwCmI mfrg qy iewk Coty jyhy Gr ivwc rihMdf sI.
CyqI hI virafm isMG qy ibsLn isMG ny pfldI (pMjfb ivwc ipE dy jwdI ipMz ipwCy rwiKaf nF) dI myE lwkV imwl vwl cfly pfAux df PLYslf kr ilaf. ieh sQfn vYnkUvr tfpU ivwc zMkn ngr dy nyVy vfikaf hY. ihMdusqfn nUM muVn qoN pihlF Auh eyQy hI kMm kiraf krdy sn.
BfvyN vYnkUvr tfpU ivwc keI hor ihMdosqfnIaF ny vI PLRyjLr diraf dy iknfry CotIaF-CotIaF imwlF lfeIaF hoeIaF sn pr AuhnF ivwcoN iksy nUM vI imE vrgI sPLlqf hfisl nhIN sI hoeI, ijsnUM cMgy BfgIN bfbU kpUr isMG vrgf lfiek BfeIvfl imilaf hoieaf sI.
Kym isMhF qYN nhIN sfzy nfl jfxf? virafm isMG ny puiwCaf sI.
myE lMbr kMpnI afpxy twbrdfr kfimaF nUM irhfiesL leI mkfn vI idaf krdI sI. BfvyN ieh sn qF Coty Coty hI qy bhuqy ssqy vI nhIN sn ipaf krdy pRMqU sn ieh bVy afrfm dyh. hor bhuqIaF kMpnIaF ieho jyhI shUlq nhIN dyNdIaF.
mYnUM aPLsos hY, Kym isMG ny afiKaf, mYN quhfzf sfQ nhIN kr skdf. mYN lMbr imwlF dIaF bwlIaF dy tflF ivwc kMm kridafF ibRitsL kolMbIaf dy jMglF ivwc pihlF hI bVf icr rih ilaf hY.
qy ijLafdf jLrUrI gwl qy ieh hY, Aus agFh afiKaf sI ik , mYN nhIN cfhuMdf ik pRIqo afpxI juafnI vYnkUvr tfpU dy jMglF ivwc hI jLfieaf kr lvy. AuWQy AuhdI koeI KLfs sMgq nhIN hovygI aqy sfrf idn Auhdy mOj-mylf krn leI kuJ nhIN hoieaf krygf. idn vyly kyvl imwlF df AukqfAU sLor aqy sLfmIN mjLdUrF dI EhI vyhly vyly dI gwpsLwp.
aqy ijvyN qUM jfxdf hI eyN, Ausny QoVHI jyhI ihckcfht nfl ikhf sI, imE aqy Auhdy pRbMDkI mfstrF df afpxy krmcfrIaF nfl rvweIaf jfgIrdfrF vflf hI hY. Auh smJdy hn ik AuhnF ny quhfnUM kMm dy ky quhfzy isr bhuq vwzf aihsfn kIqf hoieaf hY aqy bdly ivwc Auh quhfQoN aDIngI aqy aihsfnmMdI dI afs lfeI rwKdy ny.
pr Kym isMhF, ibsLn isMG ny rqf ku sKLqI nfl afiKaf, lwkV dI snaq ivwc mMdvfVf cwl irhf hY. vYnkUvr ivwc qYnUM kMm lwBx ivwc bVI idwkq afvygI, ijwQy dIaF glIaF ivwc pihlF hI vyhly mjdUrF dIaF, hyVF hrl hrl krdIaF iPLrdIaF ny.
koeI nIN ibsLn isMG ny hOsly nfl ikhf sI, jo hoAU dyKI jfAUgI.
hPLqy dy ivwc ivwc hI Kym isMG nUM vYstrn lMbr imwl ivwc iewk nOkrI dI pysLksL ho geI sI, jo vYnkUvr dI bxI nvIN aMqr-sLihrI tRYm lfeI dy inAUvYstminst stysLn qoN bhuqI dUr nhIN sI pYNdI.
imwl dy PLormYn aYirk igbjL ny AUhnUM afiKaf sI ik ,
jy qUM afpxy vrgf hI nroaf iewk hor pMjfbI joVIdfr lwB lvNy qF mYN quhfnUM dohF nUM muV-icrfeI vfly afry qy gflLy lfAux df kMm dy idaFgf.
hux eyQy iqMn gwBrU bMdy kMm krdy ny, Ausny agFh ikhf sI, pr asIN AuhnF dy kMm qoN sMqusLt nhIN. asIN AuhnF nuM lwkV dy tflF qy qbdIl kr idaFgy.
muV-icrfeI vfly afry df iZwz Brn leI isrPL do bMdy! ieh qF bVf jLoKLm vflf kMm hovygf. imwl ivwc lwgpwg 10,000 PLuwt dy PLwitaF qy dsF GMitaF dy aMdr ktfeI icrfeI huMdI hY.
pr asIN qnKLfh vI 30 sYNt GMty dy ihsfb nfl idaFgy. aYirk igwbjL ny pRBfvkfrI rONa ivwc ikhf sI, muMizaF nUM asIN dyNdy vI GMty dy pwcI sYNt hI hF.
aYqvfr vfly idn mYN quhfnUM Evr tfeIm vI dy skFgf, Ausny afiKaf sI, jy quhfzI hor ijLafdf pYsy kmfAux dI mnsLf hoeI qF.
aKLIr ivwc Kym isMG ny hF kr idwqI sI. hPLqy dy aMdr aMdr Auh nroeI idwK aqy mjLbUq kfTI vfly jotIdfr lwKf isMG nfl kMm qy af hfijLr hoieaf sI.
AusnUM PLfls kRIk dy swjy iknfry bxy iewk purfxy Gr dI pihlI mMijLl qy irhfiesL leI iewk apfrtmYNt vI iml igaf sI. dUjI mMijLl dy PLlYt ivwc iewk Xuvk XhUdI joVf rihMdf sI- eIstr qy eylI islvrstIn jo iewk inwkI jyhI imwl ivwc rMdf msLIn clfieaf krdy sn.
pwqJV dy rOsLn idn muwk gey sn. dumyl ivwc slytI rMg dy bwdlF df kfPLI nIvF Auqfrf hooieaf ipaf sI. pRMqU kuJ hPLqy bfad hI vfqfvrx, boJl ho igaf sI aqy hlky rMg dy Guly hoey bwdlF nfl asmfn Zwikaf igaf sI. CyqI hI icwtI brPL dy hlky hlky PMBy hvf ivwc AuWzdy DrqI AuWpr sihj dyx af ivrfjx sfr hI bVI qyjLI nfl lop hox lwg pey sn. plF iCxF ivwc hI iehnF dI sMGxI buCfV hox lwg peI sI. ieh pOxF ivwc bVI qyjLI nfl GuMmr pfAuNdy DrqI qy asmfn nUM sPLyd jflIdfr prdy nfl iewk dUjy nfl mylx dy afhr ivwc lwg gey sn. kuJ GMitaF dy aMdr hI DrqI brPL dI kfPLI motI cfdr nfl ZwkI geI sI. sdfbhfr kYnIPLr dy ruwKF dI sLfKLf itk geI sI. ruwKF dIaF tfhxIaF brPLF dy Bfr nfl ilPLIaF sohxIaF lwg rhIaF sn. ies nfl imwlF aqy AuhnF dy cOgfnF ivclI bdsUrqI ZwkI geI sI. ies nfl PLfls kRIk dI gMdI bsqI vI dyKx nUM KLUbsUrq lwgx lwg peI sI. pRIqo mMqr-mugD hoeI ies ivsmfdI prI-dys nUM bVI hYrfn hoeI vyK rhI sI pr ies krky Auh apfrtmYNt dy aMdr hI zwkI geI sI.
dUjI mMijLl qy rihMdI inwGy idl vflI guaFZx eIsQr pRIqo df hflcfl puwCx qy AuhnUM sMgq dyx leI bhuq vfr hyTF af jfieaf krdI sI. BfvyN iehnF dohF ivckfr pihlI vfrqflfp isrPL iesLfiraF dI mdd nfl hI nypry cVHI sI aqy kyvl aMgryjLI df koeI ivrlf tfvF sLbd hI AuhnF dI shfieqf leI bhuiVaf sI. pRMqU Auh prIqo dI slonI suMdrqf, koml mudrfvF aqy idlksL qOr-qrIikaF dy jfdU nfl kIlI geI sI. Ausny AuhnUM aMgRyjLI bolxI iswKx leI rfjLI kr ilaf sI aqy AuhnUM bqOr aiDafpk afpxIaF muPLq syvfvF dI pysLksL kr idwqI sI.
mOsm cMgf hovy jF mfVf, Kym isMG hr rojL svyry svKLqy hI kMm leI inkl jFdf aqy zUMGIaF sLfmF vyly Qwikaf tuwitaf Gr priqaf krdf sI. Auh lgpg pUry ds GMty ibnF iksy atkfa dy lwkVI dy hlky kdy Bfry toty vylxy aMdr Dwkdf rihMdf sI. kyvl afry dy blyz bdlx vyly hI AuhnUM aqy Auhdy sfQI nUM kMm qoN aYvyN ibMd-Jwt leI hI rfhq imldI sI. Auh iewk nrm-idlI qy ikrpflU mnuwK sI, jo vYnkUvr tfpU dy jMglF ivwc keI vrHy lgfqfr musLwkq krdf irhf sI. AuhnUM jIa-prcfAux vflI gwlbfq krn dI jfc nhIN sI afAuNdI aqy AuhdI juafnI vflI cVHq vI hux mwTI pY cuwkI sI. Auh kyvl afpxy AukqfAU kMm aqy spqfh-aMq qy afpxy sfQI-mjdUrF dy mfarikaF bfry hI gwl-bfq kr skdf huMdf sI. afm qOr qy Auh grm pfxI nfl nhf ky ivskI dy do ku pitaflf sLfhI pYWg pI ky pRIqo dy hwQF dI suafdlI rotI df afnMd mfx ky ibsqry ivwc tyZf ho jfieaf krdf sI. suwqf hoieaf keI vfr GurfVy mfrdf rihMdf sI aqy bl rhI aMgITI sfhmxy bYTI pRIqo awD-jlI lwkV dy toty awg ivwc JokdI rihMdI aqy hvf ivwc AuVdy inwky-inwky cMigafiVaF nUM vyKdI rihMdI sI. zUMGIaF iqRkflF dI cuwp, sIhrovfl ivwc vyKy KLUbsUrq sfd-murfdy idRsL jo Ausdy mn nUM Auml rhI KLusLI nfl mihkfa idaf krdy sn, Auhdy mn ivwc Audy-alop huMdy irhf krdy sn- mwkI dy KyqF dy tFizaF nUM jIBF hfr lwgy JUldy lMmy pwqy, rysLmI sUq kwqdIaF hrIaF kcUr CwlIaF, pwky hry rsIly aMbF nfl lwdy bfgL, pIly aqy lfl-Bfh mfrdy hry PLl, hOlI-hOlI AUNGdy bldF dI joVI nfl cwl rhy vylxy ivwcoN JrdI TMZI imwTI rs dIaF DfrF aqy sLfm dy Gusmusy ivwc Gr vwl muV rhy hflIaF aqy hrnflIaF dy idRsL. Auh bVy ivgocy nfl ieh Xfd kiraf krdI sI ik AuhnUM afpxIaF shylIaF nfl imwTI imwTI CyVKfnI nfl gwp-sLwp aqy hfsy TwTy df ikMnf suafd aieaf krdf sI. KUh qy pfxI BrdIaF kuVIaF, Bwj rhIaF CwlIaF aqy sB qoN vwD iqRMJxF ivwc sKIaF nfl rl ky ipafr gIqF dIaF hykF dIaF XfdF Auhdy kfljy df ruwg Br ky hI qF lY jfieaf krdIaF sn. ikMny mnmohk huMdy sn ieh njLfry! eyny dUr aqy icwq dy eyny nyVy_ awK sfhmxy jIvMq qOr qy sfkfr ho jfieaf krdy sn. AuhdIaF sohl kUlIaF gwlHF hMJUaF dIaF GrflF nfl DoqIaF jFdIaF aqy apfrtmYNt aMdrlI cuwp AusnUM vwZ-Kfx nUM pYNdI.
aYqvfr dy lOZy pihr, Kym isMG AysnUM dUjy pwCmI mfrg qy siQq gurduafry ivwc lY jfieaf krdf sI. EQy Auh hfl dy iewk pfsy dI kMD nfl Zfsxf lf ky bYTIaF hor qIvIaF vFg lMMmy kwpVy hyT afpxIaF lwqF Zwk ky bYTI rihMdI. sMgq ivwc afdmI dUjy pfsy vwKry bYTy huMdy sn. Auh sB rl ky pfvn gurU gRMQ sfihb df pfT jF rfgIaF dy jQy duafrf kIqy jFdy kIrqn nUM suixaf krdy sn.
kYnyzf dy iswK prvfsIaF dy jIvn ivwc gurudafrf bVI jIvMq BUimkf adf kiraf krdf sI. sMn 1908 ivwc hI vYnkUvr ivwc iewk gurduafry dI AusfrI nypry cfVH leI geI sI. iqMn sfl bfad iewk hor gurduafrf ivktorIaf ivwc vI AuWsr igaf sI aqy CyqI hI Coty sLihr qy kMmF kfrF dy itkfixaF- zMkn, aYbtsPLorz, kUMbjL, PLyjLr imwl aqy EsLn PLfljL, ijwQy ikqy vI pMjfbI vwzI igxqI ivwc kMm kiraf krdy sn- iksy afrjLI jF sQfeI iemfrq ivwc gurduafrf sQfipq kr ilaf jFdf sI.
iswKF leI gurduafry kyvl pUjf dy kyNdr nhIN sn sgoN iehnF dI keI iksm dy smfjI aqy isafsI smfgmF leI vI loV ipaf krdI sI ikAuNik iswK Drm ivwc jIvn dIaF swiBafcfrk, smfjI, afriQk , isafsI aqy rUhfnI kdrF kImqF iewk dUjI ivwc gih-gwc qOr qy rlIaF imlIaF hoeIaF sn.
prvfsIaF ivruwD nslI-ivqkry dI Bfvnf hox krky gurduafiraF dI mhwqqf ivwc hor vI ijLafdf vfDf ho igaf sI. mjdUrF dIaF iKMzIaF puMzIaF aqy alwg Qlwg hoeIaF tolIaF, ijnHF df afpxy gory guaFZIaF nfl koeI sMprk nhIN sI huMdf, nUM afpxy Dfrimk sQfnF dy hPLqfvfrI iekwTF dI dosqfnf sMbMDF aqy BfeIcfrk inwG dI KLfqr nUM hor vI gihrI loV mihsUs hoieaf krdI sI. ijhVy lok kYnyzf ivwc afpxy vfsy nUM pYsy kmfAux dI mxsLf nfl afpy ley bxvfs dI inafeIN smJdy sn, AuhnF nUM iewQoN dy mfhOl ivwc af ky Gr vrgf skUn imilaf krdf sI. iewQoN ipwiCEN GrF qoN afeIaF icwTIaF rfhIN afeIaF KLbrF afpxy dosqF nfl sFJIaF kr skdy sn, Bfrq dI isafsI hflq bfry ivcfr vtFdry kr skdy sn aqy AuhnF lokF dy pirvfr dI mdd dIaF sbIlF bxf skdy sn, ijnHF nUM afpxI mfq-BUmI dI afjLfdI leI mOq jF Aumr-kYdF dIaF sjLfvF BogxIaF peIaF sn. gurduafry AuhnF lokF leI rujLgfr kyNdr df kMm vI kiraf krdy sn, jo byrujLgfr ho jfieaf krdy sn jF afpxy hux vfly kMm nUM bdlx dI ivAuNq bxf rhy huMdy sn.
dyKo ikMnI ajIb gwl hY, iewk pihilaF vyilaF dy prvfsI bsMq isMG ny Purmfieaf sI ik , goiraF df sfzy nfl kIqf jf irhf iBMn-Byd sfzy muridaF dy ivroD qwk vI cilaf igaf hY.
afpxI gwl jfrI rwKidaF Ausny afiKaf sI ik , 1907 ivwc jdoN sfzf iewk sfQI surgvfs ho igaf sI, asIN Ausdf afpxy Drm dIaF rIqF anusfr dfh-sMskfr krnf cfhuMdy sF. pRMqU vYnkUvr dI imAUNspYiltI sLihr dIaF hwdF aMdr sfnUM ajyhf krn dI iejfjLq nhIN sI idMdI.
aqy sfzy Bgq-dosqF, eIsfeI pfdrIaF ny jwgy jYk dI ivcoligrI rfhIN sfzy lokF nUM afpxf murdf dPLnfAux leI sihmq krn dI koisLsL kIqI sI aqy AuWproN isqm jLrIPLI ieh ik AuhnF ny ies kMm leI afpxy kbirsqfn ivwc koeI QF dyx qoN nFh kr idwqI sI.
ikAuNik dYvI PLfsly vfly idn moey hoey eIsfeI ny muV jIivq ho ky rwb dI hjLUrI ivwc pysL hoxf hY, Ausny agFh afiKaf sI, ies leI AuhnF nUM sLfndfr pusLfkF pf ky mjLbUq lokF dy qfbUq ivwc bMd kIqf jFdf hY. AuhnF nUM ies gwl dI smJ nhIN pYNdI ik AuhnF dy muridaF nUM kIVy ies kdr Kf pcf cuwky hoxgy ik Auh rwb qoN vI pCfxy qwk nhIN jfxy.
asIN rfq dy hnyry ivwc gurpurI isDfr gey iswK dI dyh nUM suwky bflx dy Bry trwk smyq dUr-durfzy jMg ivwc lY gey sF aqy svyry svKLqy Auhdf dfh-sskfr kIqf igaf sI.
kFz-7
BfeIcfry dy bdldy rMg
1925 qwk dunIaF Br ivwc vsy BfrqI BfeIcfry ivwc mfnisk aqy bxqrI pwDr qy ax-igxq qbdIlI dy asr Aujfgr hoxy sLurU ho gey sn. iehnF ivwcoN kuJ afdrsLvfdI sLkqIaF dI Gt rhI pkV kfrn vfprIaF sn aqy dUjIaF ies BfeIcfry ivwc aOrqF aqy XuvkF dI igxqI ivwc numfieaf hoey vfiDaF dy iswty vjoN hoNd ivwc afeIaF sn. kYnyzIan srkfr dI kfmfgftf mfrU dy musfiPLrF nUM meI 1914 ivwc ies dysL ivwc dfKLl hox qoN kIqI geI mnfhI dy PLlsrUp BfeIcfry ivwc pRcMz hoeI eyky dI Bfvnf mwDm pY geI sI. Auh idn bhuq ipCFh rih gey sn jdoN meI 1914 ivwc vYnkUvr dy zomInIan hfl ivwc iekwTy hoey gLrIb myhnq-ksL lok KVHy pYr jhfjL dy BfVy dI PLIs qfrn leI qurq 22,000 zflr dI rkm iewkTI krky iQaflI qy srHoN jmf ky ivKf idaf krdy sn. AuhnF ivwcoN kuJ gLdr lihr ivwc sLfiml ho gey sn. pr AuhnF dI vwzI bhu-igxqI lwkV imwlF jF jLrfieqI PLfrm ivwc aOKy Bfry kMm krky apxI rotI-rojLI kmfAux dy afhr ivwc jut geI sI. bgLfvqI lihr dy qUPLfnI nyqf, syT husYn rhIm (ijhdf aslI nfm qgn lfl vrmf sI) ny myn stRIt dy mukfblqn QuVy tuwty lokF dI bsqI ivwc purfxIaF ikqfbF dI dukfn KolH leI sI. bhuq sfry rihq mirXfdf dy pfbMd iswKF ny pMjfb ivclI gurduafrf suDfr lihr ivwc srgrm ihwsf lYxf sLurU kr idwqf sI.
gdrI bgLfvq df qrQwlI Biraf dOr iewk sLfndfr Xfd bx ky rih igaf sI, jo hfly vI lokF dy mnF ivwc ihlwjuwl pYdf kr rhI sI.
pr 6 apRYl 1917 ivwc sMXukq rfj amrIkf dy pihlI sMsfr jMg ivwc sLfiml ho jfx qoN CyqI mgroN, hfly vI EQy rih gey 17 gLdrI lIzrF AuWpr ies dysL dI qtsQqf dI nIqI BMg krn dy dosL lgf ky AuhnF nUM vwK-vwK imafd dIaF kYdF dIaF sjLfvF idwqIaF geIaF sn. ies sB kfsy df iewk numfieaf nqIjf ieh inkilaf sI ik Auh aYgnIjL smYzlI aqy Ahdy mfrksvfdI sfQIaF dy asr hyT af gey sn. 1925 ivwc iehnF iewk tolI nUM rUs ivwc Byijaf sI aqy EQy dy lYinn ieMstIicAUt aqy eIstrn XUnIvristI ivwc do sflF dI isKlfeI qoN bfad Auh aPLgfinsqfn dy rsqy ihMdusqfn ivwc dfKLl ho gey sn. EQy jf ky, AuhnF nUM kuJ purfxy gdrIaF, ijnHF ny afpxIaF isafsI srgrmIaF kfrn ihMdusqfn ivwc sjLfvF BugqIaF sn, dI iBaflI nfl ikrqI iksfn pfrtI kfiem kIqI sI ijsdf qIjI kOMmFqrI nfl iswDf rfbqf sI.
pihlI aflmI jMg dy KLfqmy qIk bhuq sfry prvfsI BfrqI afdmIaF ny kuwk hfAUsF ivwc, ijnHF ivwcoN bhuqy AuhnF dy kMmF dy itkfxy dy ivwc jF nyVy qyVy hI siQq huMdy sn, CVy CFtF vflI ijLMdgI hI bsr kIqI sI. 1925 qwk iehnF ivwcoN bhuqy afpxy bIvI bwicaF nUM ilafAux leI vfips pMjfb cly gey sn. iehnF ivwcoN kuJ iewk ny, jo hflIN qIk CVy hI sn, afpxI mfqrBUmI ivwc vfips jf ky ivafh krvf ilafey sn aqy vfipsI vyly afpxIaF nv-ivafhIaF muitafr pqnIaF afpxy nfl lY afey sn. ieh KLusLnumf qbdIlI vYnkUvr dy gurudafry ivwc aYqvfr dy idnIN sjx vfly dIvfnF ivwcoN AuWGVvyN rUp ivwc njLr afieaf krdI sI. aOrqF dI hfjLrI sMgq nUM rMgIn aqy KLUbsUrq bxfAuNdI sI aqy jyhVy bMdy kfPLI lMmy smyN qoN kwly-kfry hI ijLMdgI bsr krdy cly af rhy sn, kudrqI hI AuhnF nUM njLr Br ky dyKx aqy AuhnF nfl gwlbfq krn leI bVy qhUM hoey rihMdy sn.
iehnF ivwcoN keI swjx qF pihlF kdI kdfeIN hI gurduafry ivwc njLr afieaf krdy sn. jwgy jYk ny afiKaf sI, pr hux aOrqF leI rfKvIN rwKI QF dy sfhmxlI dIvfr nfl Zfsxf lf ky sItF mwlx leI agyqy hI af nmUdfr huMdy sn.
bsMq isMG df iKLafl sI ik , iehnF nUM afpxIaF awKF muMd ky gurbfxI dy kIrqn df rs mfnx ivwc koeI idlcspI nhIN huMdI sgoN AuhnF dI qF ieh Dfrnf huMdI sI ik rwb dI rcnf arQfq nvIaF afeIaF aOrqF nUM isPLqI ingfh nfl vyKxf Auhdy pfvn sLbdF nUM iDafn pUrvk srvx krn ijMnf hI vwzf puMn huMdf hY.
Auh kQf jF kIrqn dy sLurU hox qoN kfPLI smF pihlF hI phuMc jFdy sn, jwgf kihMdf huMdf sI, qy gurduafry sfhmxy bxI pgzMzI qoN tolIaF bxf ky GroN afeIaF KLbrF bfry ivcfr vtFdrf krn, hor gwpsLwp lVfAux aqy juafn aOrqF dy husn qy pROV hoeIaF dy slonypx nUM mfnx ihwq dUhf dUh juwt jfieaf krdy sn.
quhfnUM AuhnF dIaF itwpxIaF not krnIaF cfhIdIaF ny. Aus agFh afiKaf. afh, Aus sLYl sLbIlI rMn vwl vyKo, jo dmy dy mfry suwkV jyhy bfhmx nfl ivafhI hoeI af. aqy Auh ikMnI lMm-slMmI BrvIaF CfqIaF vflI buwq dI inafeIN GVy-qrfsLy ijsm vflI hY.
dyKo nf koeI surKLI lfeI hY aqy nf hI pfAUzr dI cutkI CuhfeI hoeI ey dUjf afKdf, pr sfry hfr-isLMgfr nfl sjIaF gorIaF qIvIaF nfloN ikqy vwD sohxI hY.
iehnUM iksy bxfAutI sLukInI dI loV eI nhIN koeI, qIjf toxf lfAuNdf, Auhdy suhwpx df Byq qF AuhdI kudrqI cmk ivwc hY aqy AuhdIaF lMmIaF KLUbsUrq plkF vwl vyKo ikvyN surgF dy luBfAuxy isgnlF vFg AuhdIaF supnIlIaF awKF AuWpr hOlI-hOlI Jmk rhIaF ny.
qy ieh mjnUM grmIaF dI ruwqy iktslfno dy sfgr qwt qy nhf rhIaF KLUbsUrq sPLyd prIaF dy drsLn krky awKF qwqIaF krn leI itkitkI lfeI bYTy rihMdy ny.
qyrI gwl sLfied TIk hI hY. jwgf sihmqI ivwc afKdf, ikAuNik vMngI hI ijLMdgI nUM idlcsp aqy msflydfr bxfAuNdI hY.
mYN JUm rhI lgr vFg qurdI pRIqo nUM vyKdf hF, sLfnF mwqI pr sLrmIlI aqy afpxy afp ivwc hI nisLafeI hoeI. ies qoN agFh AuhnF nUM sLbd hI nhIN sn aOVdy. hYrfnI BrIaF awKF nfl Auh isrPL ieh Gusr musr kr skdy huMdy sn-surg aY beI surg.
hY ieh gwl solF afny swc bsMq isMG afKdf. Auhdf husn aMimRq vyly iKVy gulfb dy Puwl vrgf hY aqy qurn vyly Auhdy aMg aMg ivwc lck aqy sMgIq Jrdy hn.
aqy jwgf afpxf qoV JfVdf, qMg kuVqI hyT AuhdIaF kwjIaF CfqIaF jjLby guwDI gLjLl dy isLarF vFg hulfry lYNdIaF hn.
jwgy qYnUM qF kvI bxnf cfhIdf hY, bsMq isMG ny ikhf.
pr mYnUM qF koeI awKr qwk JrItnf nhIN afAuNdf.
mlUky nUM afpxy smUrq sLbdF nUM sur qfl aqy lYa ivwc bIVn leI afK.
afh ieh muMzf mlUk, jwgy ny lfz nfl ikhf, icwTI ilKxhfry dy qOr qy eynf msLhUr ho igaf hY ik PRyjLr kMZy dIaF lMbr imwlF ivwc kMm krdy sfzy anpVH dysL vfsI AuhqoN icwTIaF ilKvfAux leI dUroN dUroN afAuNdy hn. Auh AusnUM kuJ KLbrsfr dy nukqy idMdy hn, jo AuhnF dI afpxy twbr qIk phuMcfAux dI rIJ huMdI hY aqy mlUk AuhnF nUM sPLy Br ivwc PLYlf ky suMdr sfihqk ilKLq df rUp dy idMdf hY.
qy sfd-murfdy pyNzU lokF df ivsLvfs huMdf hY ik iewk mlUky dIaF ilKIaF icwTIaF dy jvfb CyqI afAuNdy hn.
jYk bsMq isMG ny ikhf, afpxy sfihqk dosq nUM buwZy TyiraF nfl ivafhIaF muitafr nfrF qoN bc ky rihx dI qfkId kr dyeIN.
qkVy nroey aqy KLUbsUrq idwK vfly kuJ nOjuafn ijnHF ny bVIaF bxf suafr ky pocvIaF pwgF bwDIaF hoeIaF sn, nIly jF BUry nvyN sUt pihny hoey sn aqy cmkIly rMgF dIaF tfeIaF lfeIaF hoeIaF sn, iewk dUjy dy mgr pINj bMnHI gurduafry dy aMdr dfKLl hoey, AuhnF ny mhfrfj dy sfhmxy goizaF prny ho ky bVy siqkfr nfl isr Jukf ky aqy hwQ joV ky mfieaf ardfs kIqI.
AuhnF ivwcoN cfr- pUrn isMG, mohn isMG, dlIp isMG aqy mlUkf sfry dy sfry ibRitsL kolMbIaf dI XUnIvristI ivwc pVH rhy ividafrQI sn. Auh drbfr sfihb dy Kwby pfsy kIrqn krn vfly jwQy dy nfl jf bYTy. AuhnF ny qbly, hfrmonIam aqy icmty dI qfl qy bVI BrvIN aqy surIlI afvfjL ivwc iewk bhuq hI idl-tuMbvF sbLd gfieaf:
suix nfh pRBU jIE
ieklVI bn mfhy
ikEN DIrYsI nfh
ibn pRBu vyprvfhy
bfJhu ipafry
koeI n sfry
ieklVI kurlfey
nfnk sf Dnu imly imlfey
ibn pRIqm duKu pfey.
sMgq ivwc bYTIaF bIbIaF ny ies sLbd nUM mMqr-mugD ho ky suixaf. pRIqo qF bVI musLikl nfl hI afpxIaF awKF ivwcoN hMJU vgxoN rok skI sI.
ieh eyny pVHy ilKy aqy icqMn muMzy, BfeI gurbcn isG ny ikhf sI, sfzI ibrD ho rhI pIVHI ivwc iewk nvIN afs aqy hOsly dI ikrn PLUkdy ny.
sLflf ieh afpxy gurUaF dI iswiKaf dy anukUl bxy rihx, qfrf isMG ny juafb idwqf , aqy AuhnF duafrf dwsy nykI dy mfrg qy cwldy rihx.
ibRitsL kolMbIaf ivwc rihMdy pMjfbI prvfsI afpxI jnm BUmI dy iqMn pRmuwK iKwiqaF duafby, (diraf sqluj aqy ibafs dy ielfky) mflvy (sqluj dy pUrb vwl dy Kyqr) aqy mfJy ( ibafs aqy rfvI dy ivckfr dy Kyqr) ivcoN afey sn. iehnF iqMnF smUhF dy lokF dy QoVHy jyhy vwKo-vwKry lwCx hn aqy AuhnF nUM rqf ku vDf cVHf ky AuhnF ny iewk dUjy bfry mfsUm jyhy hfs-msLkUly GVy hoey hn. duafby dy lokF nUM ihMmqI aqy srPLyKLor smiJaf jFdf sI, AuhnF nUM dfl-Kfxy hox df myhxf mfiraf jFdf sI, arQfq AuhnF nUM dfl-rotI Kf ky gujLfrf krn vfly lok ikhf jFdf sI. mlveI mOj-mylf krn vfly afrfm pRsq smJy jFdy hn aqy mfJy dy lokF nUM afm krky Kwbl-isry ivskI pIxy bMdy ikhf jFdf sI ikAuNik AuhnF dy vfl sMGxy aqy vlyNvyNdfr huMdy sn aqy Auh dfrU-pIx dy afdI huMdy sn.
jdoN koeI duafby df bMdf kMm lwB irhf huMdf hY, bsMq isMG ny iehnF dy vwKo-vwKry lwCxF dI ivafiKaf krn leI ikhf krdf sI, Auh Evr tfeIm dI sMBfvnf bfry puwC pVqfl krygf mlveI bMdf ies gwl df pwk krygf ik kMm dy nyVy rihx leI grm guslKfinaF vfly sohxy suKfvyN kuaftr hox aqy mfJy df bMdf ieh puwCygf ik nyVy qyVy koeI sLrfb df Tykf hY jy.
hoieaf drasl ieMj sI ik duafby dy ielfky dy kuJ pkroV jyhy CVy bMdy mflvy dy iKwqy ivwco kuJ muitafr pqnIaF ivafh ky ihMdosqfnoN prqy sn. mlveI ies gwloN bVy lohy-lfKy hoey sn.
ikMnI sLrm dI gwl hY ik Kym isMG vrgf buwZf-KosV duafbIaf pRIqo vrgI sohxI sunwKI mlvfiex ivafh ky ihMdosqfnoN prqy lMmy-JMmy aqy lVfky hIrf isMG nUM ies gwl df ihrK sI.
qy AuhnUM iewk gMdI bsqI ivwc qfV ky iekwl mfrI ijLMdgI bsr krn leI mjbUr kry. hfkm isMG ny AuhdI hF ivwc hF imlfAuNidaF ikhf sI.
quhfzy nwk ivwcoN ieMny TUMhyN ikAuN JV rhy hn, nwQf isMG ny Aujr kIqf sI. jy mlveI ny sfzI iksy kuVI nfl ivafh kr ilaf, qF sfnUM koeI Aujr nhIN.
TIk hY, hIrf isMG ny afiKaf sI, asIN quhfzy nfloN vDyry pql-cMmy aqy axKIly hF. hIrf isMG ny moV idwqf sI.
sfnuM afpxy ielfky ivwcoN ies sLrmnfk inkfs nUM hr hIly rokxf cfhIdf hY.
asIN ies nmosLI vflI hflq nUM zwkf lfAux leI mflvy ivwc lok-rfie pYdf krn KLfqr iewQoN kuJ lokF df vPLd ByjFgy.
ibRitsL kolMbIaf ivwc visaf purfxf iswK BfeIcfrf afpxI jMmx BoN dIaF jVHF nfl ieMnf bwJf hoieaf sI ik pMjfb ivwc qF ies nvIN iksm dy ivafh ho rhy sn prMqU kYnyzf ivwc mlveIaF aqy duafbIaF ivwckfr twkr vD rhI sI.

anuvfd:sfDU isMG

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