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mfstr BrpUr isMG

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

gurdfxf Zfb

 

- jrnYl isMG syKf

prvdgfr, apfr byaMq qUM, ijnf pCfqf scu cuMmF pYr mUM.. / kIrqn klf nUM Dfrimk kwtVqf dIaF vlgxF ivwc bMd nhIN kIqf jf skdf.

 

- blbIr isMG kMvl

kTpuqlIaF

 

- aMimRqpfl isMG KLflsf

sur isMGIaf BujMgI mfsko c

 

- amrjIq cMdn

bwbU mfn dy bhfny

 

- blivMdr gryvfl

nftk / BUq

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

BMzf BMzfrIaf [mohn BMzfrI

 

- goovrDn gwbI

eIvfn ielIc dI dUjI mOq

 

- ajmyr iswDU

bfl-sfihwq : siQqI aqy cuxOqIaF

 

- drn isMG aft (zf[)

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

snmfn icMnH

 

- crnjIq isMG pMnU

'kfkipwt' qoN bfhr bxy rihx df 'qIjI iDr' df pRvcn-'irm iJm prbq'

 

- blivMdr isMG gryvfl

khfxI irm iJm prbq` nUM pVHidaF

 

- blkfr isMG

KwtIaF imwTIaF XfdF

 

- blbIr iskMd

nfvl jflL coN klfqimkqf lwBidaF

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

pfsL XfdgfrI smfgm kYilPLornIaf
(10 julfeI 2010)

 

- suirMdr DMjl

nfnkf my ryl gwzI

 

- suKdyv iswDU

pfsL aqy hirMdr isMG mihbUb

 

- suirMdr DMjl

suwcI ikqfb

 

- amrjIq cMdn

ieh sB ivgVy hoey muMzy kuVIaF sn

 

- krm isMG ihstorIan

jdoN KLUn dy ipafsy glLIN lwg ky imly

 

- hrdIp isMG Kflsf

ryzIE leI avf-tYst

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

koicMg df byimsfl klfkfr
kYroN KyzH ivMg df aQLLlYitks koc: blijMdr isMG

 

- zf[ suirMdr mMz

duwD dyx vflI mwJ

 

- bljIq bfsI

crcf ivwc hY srqfj

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

ijwQoN sUrj AuWgdf hY

 

- ikrpfl kfk

ienklfb qF afh KVHY

 

- aqrjIq

surjIq pfqr

 

- moinkf kumfr

irm iJm prbq, dy aMg-sMg[[[

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

rotI

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

guV

 

- blbIr iskMd

myrf pfiksqfn

 

- suKdyv iswDU

aMimRqpfl isMG dy Kq (lyK) df juafb

 

- suKpfl

myrIaF ilKqF dy svfgq df iewk pfsf

 

- igafnI sMqoK isMG

jMglI ibwlI aqy snoa

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

vgdI ey rfvI
pMjfbI siBafcfr df gOrvlfhOr

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

pwcfsI virHaF df jsLn
(jIvnI: srdfr drsLn isMG)

 

- hrjIq atvfl

myrI dOlq myrIaF icwTIaF

 

- myjr mFgt

bwly Eey afDuink zfktro

 

- govrDn gwbI

BuipMdr pRIq dI kfiv-gUMj

 

- dyivMdr kOr

Drm aqy ivigafn iewk ivsLlysLx

 

- jsdIp isMG guxhIx

 do gLjLlF

 

- gurmIq KoKr

hMugfry

 

sur isMGIaf BujMgI mfsko c

- amrjIq cMdn

 

(amrjIq cMdn df ieh afrtIkl kuJ sfl pihlF Cp cuwkf hY. sIrq dy pfTkF dI idlcspI leI dubfrf Cfipaf jf irhf hY)

buD isMG iZwloN nfqsIvfd dI ikwsq mgroN 1945 c sLfied brlIn ivc

krqfr kOr iZwloN dI ilKq bz iZwloN aqy qoqy dI cuMJ;
pMjfbI AulQf: sfDU ibinMg, kukns, 2002; pMj zfly

hor dsF sflF Bfrq dI afjLfdI dI amrIkf c sMn 1913 c cwlI dr lihr pUrI sdI ho jfxI hY. iehdIaF XfdgfrF sfnPLRFissko qy jlMDr c bxIaF hoeIaF hn. keIaF ny iehdI aDUrI qvfrIKL ilKI hY. iehdy keI pwK hOlLI-hOlLI hux jf ky KuwlHx lwgy hn. dr qy ikrqI lihr bfbq dwKxI amrIkf dy dysF (brfjLIl, mYksIko, arjntfeInf), cIn, jfpfn, brmf, ieMglYNz, qurkI, rUs, ietlI, PLrFs qy jrmnI dIaF srkfrI imslF hfly qfeIN iksy ny nhIN vfcIaF. ienHF GoiKaF hI ies lihr dIaF ZkIaF, axgOlLIaF qy awqkQnIaF df inqfrf hoxf hY. iesy qrHF df axgOilLaf bMdf bz iZwloN sI (buD aMgryI c bz ho igaf). buD isMG bfrF sflF dI inwkI Aumry 1922 ivc kYilornIaf qoN rfjy mhyNdR pRqfp dy sq jixaF dy jwQy c rlL ky iqwbq imsLn qy cIn igaf sI. rUs puwjx vflLf iekwlf buD isMG sI. EdoN ku BfeI rqn isMG, sMqoK isMG, dfdy mIr hYdr rUsI ienklfb dy rfh df pqf lwgf sI qy AunHF ny dr qy ikrqI pfrtI dy koeI 80 (awsI) kfmy rUs ienklfb dI awg lYx Gwly sI. pr buD isMG df vyrvf hux jf ky pqf lwgf hY. krqfr kOr iZwloN dI ilKq bz iZwloN aqy qoqy dI cuMJ dr lihr dI qfrI dIaF axizwT qMdF mydI hY, ijhdf pqf kuJ ku drI afgUaF hI sI. krqfr qy buD sky BYx-BfeI sI. ienHF dy mfpy bI isMG qy rqn kOr (pykf ipMz gumtI) kYilornIaf c mfJy dy AuWGy ipMz sur isMG qoN sMn 1899 c gey sI. bI isMG dy vzyry rxjIq isMG dI Oj c huMdy sI. ieh afp rMgIaF dI Oj c BrqI ho ky cInIaF dI pIikM dI bfvq dbfAux c shfeI hoieaf. Oj Cwz ky imrkx vl smuMdrI jhfF c kMm krdf-krdf astorIaf kYilornIaf puwj igaf. iesy QF dr pfrtI bMnHx df pihlf kwT hoieaf sI. bI isMG dI ibrqI BfeIbMdF dI mdd krn `c lwgI huMdI qy vqn dI affdI dI qFG Auhdy idl c vsI hoeI sI. kYilornIaf c jMmy krqfr kOr hurIN AuprQI dy awT BYx-BfeI sI. krqfr qy buD df Aumr df rk do-iqMn sflF df hI hoxY. ies ikqfb c BYx dIaF puwCF dy moV Brf ny idwqy hoey hn. dUjy QF krqfr kOr ny apxI kQf ilKI hY. buwD df jnm 28 jnvrI 1912 df hY aqy 23 julfeI 1998 pUrf hoieaf sI. ikqfb dy mwQy `qy CpI sMn 1998 dI qsvIr c qoqy dI cuMJ vrgy nwk vfI BYx qfro apxy Kwby hwQ nIvIN pfeI KVHy 86 sflF dy Coty Brf buD dI Bry iekwT nf isafx krvf rhI hY. (BYx-Brf dI aYsI mfxmwqI sFJ mYN pihlF kdy nhIN sI dyKI suxI. irqivk Gtk dI bMgflI ilm cyqy afeI, ijs c BYx-Brf iekwTy tYgor df gIq gfAuNdy hn.) aYn iesy QF XugFqr afrm dI pUry 75 sfl pihlF dI qsvIr vI hY dr pfrtI dy JMzy dI qfby rfjy mhyNdR pRqfp nf sq jixaF c OjI vrdI pfeI bIbf rfxf axdfhVIaf buD isMG vI KVHf hY.
jwQy df cIn jfxf ikqfb nhIN dwsdI ik buD isMG ny rfjy dy nf cIn jfx df mqf ikwdF pkfieaf sI. bs eynf hI dwisaf hY ik ipAu puq brkly XUnivristI qoN gey ihMdI pfiVHaF dy nf sYkrfmYNto c pYI guwzdy sI ik puq ny ipAu jfx df dwisaf. Gry mF ny QohVf idl Cwizaf qy rox lwgI, qF bI isMG ny Auh dsvyN pfqfh df qy sfihbfidaF df cyqf krfieaf. ibRMdfbn vl dI iksy irafsq dy rfjy mhyNdR pRqfp ny gwdIEN lwQ ky pihlF kfbl jf ky ihMdusqfn dI jlfvqn srkfr bxfeI sI. Pyr 1924 c amrIkf dr pfrtI ko bMdy qy pYsy mMgx igaf sI. pfrtI ny Auh qIh hfr zfly kwTy kr idwqy. AuhdI agvfeI c swqF df jwQf pfsportF ibnF jnvrI 1924 hFkF jpfnI jhf c rvfnf hoieaf. buD isMG df nF myr isMG vI sI. ieh qoN ibnF iehieh jxy sI: gyNdf isMG srHfF klF huiafrpur df, ZwizaF df dsONDf isMG mfn, ieMdr isMG tUtomjfrIaf, ibn isMG burjF df, Dulyqy df crn isMG aqy huiafrpur KyiVaF df duwlf isMG. ies imn df hvfeI mksd sI: cIn qoN hiQafr lY ky iqbq-nypfl QfxIN ihMdI ienklfbIaF phMucfx df pRbMD krnf. (sf 22) BfeI rqn isMG df rfjy nf bMdy nf Gwlx df sunyhf amrIkf dr pfrtI vyly isr imiaf nhIN sI. BfeI jI qy qyjf isMG suqMqr ny iqbq imn dy nF nf jfxy-jFdy ies AuWdm pYsy qy bMidaF dI brbfdI ikhf sI. (dyKo: Bgq isMG ibgy dI 1989 c CpI ikqfb dr lihr dy axPoy vrky (sf 142). aYsI hflq dhfkf pihlF mYvirk jhf dy drIaF dI hoeI sI. rsqy dI vfrqf ivc rfjy df ingmf koeI bfhf cMgf nhIN hY. iehI ik Auh PMU-PF vff bMdf sI. afp Auh Auqly drjy c sr krdf sI, pr nf dy jhf dy iZwz (stIaryj) c ssqy QF qVy huMdy. Auh apxy afp iswK gurUaF brobr smJdf sI. Auh nvF pRym Drm clfAux iPrdf sI. jwQf hFkF dI QF qokIE rfs ibhfrI bos ko Auqr igaf. rfjf nf-idaF nf koeI isafsI gwl nhIN sI krdf. Auhny iek hfr zfly bos idwqy; bfkI apxy ko hI rwKy. jwQy df kul BfVf cfr ku sO hI lwgf sI.

3
dr pfrtI dy idwqy bfkI pYisaF df kI bixaF? buD isMG rfs ibhfrI bos bfry dsdf hY: bos mY bVf GmMzI bMdf lwgf sI. kdy vI sfzy nf brfbr idaF vFg gwl nhIN sI kIqI. bs sf lkr hI idMdf rihMdf sI. ienHF pyfvr ienklfbIaF bfbq buD isMG hor vI bVIaF kOVIaF gwlF krdf hY. jwQf bVI AuzIk ipwCoN qokIE qoN korIaf qy Pyr AuWqrI mfncUrIaf huMdf cIn puwjf. buD isMG dwsdf hY: pIikMg c rfjf afp qF mihMgy qoN mihMgy hotl c Tihiraf qy sfzf iksy dy Gr itkfxf kr idwqf. asIN PwitaF `qy sONdy sI. iksy cInI jrnYl ny rfjy kuJ rlF qy do GoVsvfr idwqy. (ieh dohvyN aPImcI inky. rlF clfeIaF, cwlIaF nf; goIaF myc nf afeIaF.) mhfn kMD dy nf-nf awT mhIny pYdl qurdy gey. rfh c Kwz c GoVy sxy izgdy sfQI gyNdf isMG bcfAux dI QF rfjy kYmry nf AuhdI oto iKwcx dI vD icMqf lwgI sI. bImfr pey buD Cwz ky rfjf QohVy ku pYsy dy ky afp agFh qurdf bixaf. jwQy dy idloN rfjf mUoN hI Auqr igaf qy sfiraF r ky Auh kuwitaf sI. buD isMG, ibn isMG burj qy crn isMG Dulyqf hfr ky jfpfn muV gey. EQy jf ky rfjy df idwqf cYWk jd quVfieaf, qF Auh jfalI inkiaf. ieQy pfrtI ny buD sunyhf Gwilaf ik jF Auh cIn dI imltrI akfdmI c pVnHy pvy jF qurkI vflLI akfdmI c. qurkI dI gwl qyjf isMG affd [suqMqr] dI imhrbfnI nf bxI. Auh EQy pVH cuwkf sI qy Auh iesy dy hwk c sI. (sf 28) qurkI jFidaF-jFidaF buD isMG mfsko c hI itk ky pUrb dy ikrqIaF dI XUnIvristI c pVHn lg ipaf. EdoN iehdI Aumr sfrI 13 sfl dI sI. EQy iksy afief nF dI kuVI nf inafxI Aumr dy ipafr dI sYnq hY. buD ny bVy sflF ipwCoN apxI DI df nF Esy kuVI dy nF `qy Diraf sI.  dMd kQfvF vfI ikrqIaF dI XUnIvristI df hfl buD isMG ny vyrvy nf dwisaf hY. Aus vyly EQy BfeI rqn isMG, pRIqm isMG qy hrjfp isMG vI mfrksvfd-lyinnvfd pVHdy sI. sfry bflivk lIzrF df afAux-jfx vI rihMdf sI. Auh qIsrI kimAuinst ieMtrnYnl df mfnf sI. buD isMG dsdf hY ik Ausqfd Auh rqn isMG nfoNN isafxf smJdy sI qy hrjfp isMG aMgryI nhIN sI afAuNdI! bfq bVI lMbI hY. muwkdI gwl ieh ik dr pfrtI ny buD isMG sMn 1929 c dUjI vfrI Pyr mfsko hor BfrqIaF dI pVHfeI df pRbMD krn vfsqy Gwl idwqf. Gr muV ky Auh lokF dy KyqF c kMm krn lwgf. iqMn sflF mgroN 1932 c buD dI mF rqn kOr pUrI ho geI. ipqf bI isMG Cy sfl pihlF muwk igaf sI.

dUjI vwzI jMg
dUjI vwzI jMg vyly buD df sB qoN Cotf BfeI hrI aTfrF df hoieaf sI. sfry Brf fim ilf lVn leI amrIkI Oj c BrqI ho gey. buD PLrFs dy morcy ivc sfrjYNt bx ky liVaf qy bhfdrI df qmgLf ijwiqaf. hrI EkInfvf dy smuMdr kMZy mfiraf igaf. sMn 1947 c buD df iksy afieir amrIkI qIvIN nf ivafh ho igaf. Auh bIbI lfiebRyrIan qy tryz XUnIainst sI. 1950hF dy awD c buD XUrp qoN motrvYn c apxIaF dohvF DIaF qy GrvfI nf pMjfb apxy jwdI ipMz sur isMG igaf sI qy drI afgUaF lB-lB ky imiaf. (ieiqhfsk ipMz sur isMG dy buD isMG iZwloN vrgy keI bMdy bVy krnI vfy hoey hn. AunHF dI Xfdgfr ipMz c jy nhIN, qF hoxI cfhIdI hY. ieho ijhy ajfiebGrF dI hr ipMz qy hr ihr c loV hY.) apxy 86vyN sfl c buD isMG sfn rFissko dI styt XUnIvristI c ieqflvI, rUsI qy pulItIkl lsy dI pVHfeI krdf sI. ihrK vfI gwl hY ik isafxf-ibafxf buD isMG apxIaF XfdF afp nhIN ilK ky rK igaf. hux AuhdIaF ieh bfqF hI bhuq hn. 

XugFqr afrm
pfTkF ny dr pfrtI dy dPLqr XugFqr afrm (BfeIbMdF dI bolI c juigMdr afrm) dI iemfrq dI purfxI qsvIr dyKI hoxI hY. Auh asl QF MkrIey vIr svrn isMG ny mulk affd hox mgroN Zuaf ky kuhjy nmUny dI bxvfeI sI. ieh dyK ky mwQf Txkdf hY. buD isMG df ies bfbq ieh kihxf hY: iek hor bVI rm vfI gwl hY ik Bfrq srkfr ny 5 vuwz stRIt vff pihlf afrm Zfh idwqf.[[[hux vff hfl pihly afrm dy pYrF vrgf vI nhIN. (sf 49) jlMDr dyBgq Xfdgfr hfl dy nf dI nvIN iemfrq XugFqr afrm dy nmUny dI bxfAux leI mYN Bgq isMG ibgf bynqI kIqI sI. AunHF suxI nhIN. Auh hux XugFqr afrm df afrkItYktF vff mOzl bxvf ky Iy c mVfH ky qF rK skdy hn. qoqy dI cuMJ ikqfb dy agly ihwsy c krqfr kOr dI apxI iviQaf hY. iehdf twbr bVf vwzf sI, ijhdy c axigxq drI vI sn. ienHF dIaF gwlF kridaF apxI mF qy pqI drI sUrq isMG igwl hwQoN hoeI durgiq dI gwl KuwlH ky ilKI hY. iehny apxf afdmI Cwz idwqf sI. mF DI iZwzoN nhIN sI locdI. ieh qoqy dI cuMJ vflLIey kihky bulfAuNdI iehdf idl sfVdI rihMdI sI. mF DI df ieh kly pVH ky mn `qy Bfr pYNdf hY. mF hI DI dI vYrn hoAUgI, ieh swc nhIN afAuNdf. Pyr DI dohqI jMm ky apxI mF qoN bdlf lYx qy puwq jMmy ijMnI uI huMdI hY. pihly ihwsy c rfjy mhyNdR pRqfp dI BMzI kIqI hoeI hY. sfKIaF suxn-suxfAux vfiaF ieh gwlF vfrf nhIN KfxIaF. iek QF krqfr kOr ny Kyq kfimaF qy inq afieaF-igaF leI rotIaF dy swQry lfhuMdI apxI mF dI gwl lfz nf vI kIqI hY: aOh rsoeI c axGVq my duafly myry mF ipAu bYTy mY hfly vI idsdy hn. mF apxy mfipaF pMjfbI c icwTI ilK ky Auhdy `qy pMCI qy vylbUty pfAux lwgI hY. bfpU myry skUl dI lIkF vfI kfpI `qy dIvy dI loey kivqf ilK irhf hY. (ieh qrjmf myrf hY! a[cM [)
ikqfb df qrjmf qrjmf mfVf hY. ikqfb dy nF qoN pqf nhIN lgdf ik ivc kI hoAUgf. ikqfb df nF drI BYx Brf ZuwkvF hoxf sI. gyNdf isMG gMzf isMG krky iliKaf hY. sfDU ibinMg df kwly df ksUr nhIN; awj bVy vfrqk ilKfrI, sxy aKOqI Bff ivigafnIaF dy, sfzIaF awKF sfhmxy sfzI bolI df swiqafnfs kr rhy hn. ieh pMjfbI c aMgryI/ihMdI ilKdy hn. pMjfbI df ikrf aMgryI ikry vF iliKaf huMdf hY. aMgryI afrtIkl iek vrqx dI KotI afdq sfiraF hY. TyT BfKf koeI ivrlf hI ilKdf hY. suhjy pfTk ies ikqfb dI mOilk aMgryI vfI ilKq pVHnI cfhIdI hY, jo drfeIt (nvMbr 1998) ivc CpI sI qy dy Bgq Xfdgfr jlMDroN imldI hoxI hY. OkIaf ieiqhfskfrF myrI bynqI hY ik Auh ikqfb dy aIr c GtnfvlI qy ikqfb c afey nfvF-QfvF dI sUcI rUr Cfipaf krn.

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