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mfstr BrpUr isMG

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

gurdfxf Zfb

 

- jrnYl isMG syKf

prvdgfr, apfr byaMq qUM, ijnf pCfqf scu cuMmF pYr mUM.. / kIrqn klf nUM Dfrimk kwtVqf dIaF vlgxF ivwc bMd nhIN kIqf jf skdf.

 

- blbIr isMG kMvl

kTpuqlIaF

 

- aMimRqpfl isMG KLflsf

sur isMGIaf BujMgI mfsko c

 

- amrjIq cMdn

bwbU mfn dy bhfny

 

- blivMdr gryvfl

nftk / BUq

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

BMzf BMzfrIaf [mohn BMzfrI

 

- goovrDn gwbI

eIvfn ielIc dI dUjI mOq

 

- ajmyr iswDU

bfl-sfihwq : siQqI aqy cuxOqIaF

 

- drn isMG aft (zf[)

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

snmfn icMnH

 

- crnjIq isMG pMnU

'kfkipwt' qoN bfhr bxy rihx df 'qIjI iDr' df pRvcn-'irm iJm prbq'

 

- blivMdr isMG gryvfl

khfxI irm iJm prbq` nUM pVHidaF

 

- blkfr isMG

KwtIaF imwTIaF XfdF

 

- blbIr iskMd

nfvl jflL coN klfqimkqf lwBidaF

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

pfsL XfdgfrI smfgm kYilPLornIaf
(10 julfeI 2010)

 

- suirMdr DMjl

nfnkf my ryl gwzI

 

- suKdyv iswDU

pfsL aqy hirMdr isMG mihbUb

 

- suirMdr DMjl

suwcI ikqfb

 

- amrjIq cMdn

ieh sB ivgVy hoey muMzy kuVIaF sn

 

- krm isMG ihstorIan

jdoN KLUn dy ipafsy glLIN lwg ky imly

 

- hrdIp isMG Kflsf

ryzIE leI avf-tYst

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

koicMg df byimsfl klfkfr
kYroN KyzH ivMg df aQLLlYitks koc: blijMdr isMG

 

- zf[ suirMdr mMz

duwD dyx vflI mwJ

 

- bljIq bfsI

crcf ivwc hY srqfj

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

ijwQoN sUrj AuWgdf hY

 

- ikrpfl kfk

ienklfb qF afh KVHY

 

- aqrjIq

surjIq pfqr

 

- moinkf kumfr

irm iJm prbq, dy aMg-sMg[[[

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

rotI

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

guV

 

- blbIr iskMd

myrf pfiksqfn

 

- suKdyv iswDU

aMimRqpfl isMG dy Kq (lyK) df juafb

 

- suKpfl

myrIaF ilKqF dy svfgq df iewk pfsf

 

- igafnI sMqoK isMG

jMglI ibwlI aqy snoa

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

vgdI ey rfvI
pMjfbI siBafcfr df gOrvlfhOr

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

pwcfsI virHaF df jsLn
(jIvnI: srdfr drsLn isMG)

 

- hrjIq atvfl

myrI dOlq myrIaF icwTIaF

 

- myjr mFgt

bwly Eey afDuink zfktro

 

- govrDn gwbI

BuipMdr pRIq dI kfiv-gUMj

 

- dyivMdr kOr

Drm aqy ivigafn iewk ivsLlysLx

 

- jsdIp isMG guxhIx

 do gLjLlF

 

- gurmIq KoKr

hMugfry

 


bfl-sfihwq : siQqI aqy cuxOqIaF
- drn isMG aft (zf[)
 

 

sfihwq mfnvI jIvn dI agvfeI krn vflf iewk kqIflI mfiDam svIkfr kIqf jFdf hY. hr mulk jF kOm df sfihwq AuQoN dy lokF dy smfijk, BfeIcfrk srokfrF aqy bOiDk pRgtfvy aqy jIvn muwlF df drpx huMdf hY. dUjy bdF ivwc afKxf hovy qF ikhf jf skdf hY ik iksy kOm-kbIly, dy jF smfj ivy dI rfjsI, Dfrimk, smfijk, afriQk afid pRsiQqIaF dI klfmeI pykfrI sfihwq aKvfAuNdI hY. ies df iswDf qfaluk lokF nfl hI huMdf hY. iesy krky ikhf jFdf hY ik sfihwq df mUl pRyrxf sRoq lok-jIvn hY. sfihwq prMprf aqy afDuinkqf drimafn iewk puwl dI BUimkf inBfAuNdf hY. msln jdoN vI iksy smfj dI virHaF qoN cwldI af rhI prMprf tuwtdI hY aqy nvyN Xuwg dy anusfr nvIN mirafdf sQfipq hox lwgdI hY qF Aus smfj dy sfihwq ivwc vI nvIaF pRivrqIaF hoNd ivwc afAuNdIaF hn. ijvyN ijvyN pirvrqn vfprdy rihMdy hn, nvIaF pRivrqIaF sfihwq nUM pRBfivq krdIaF rihMdIaF hn. sfihwq awgoN smfj Aupr asr pfAuNdf hY ijs nfl jfgRqI jF cyqnf df AudY huMdf hY. sfihwq sdIvI amr rihx vflI klf hY. ivroDI pRsiQqIaF ivwc qF ieh sgoN hor vDyry Pldf hY. Bfrq ivwc 18vIN sdI dy urU aqy 19vIN sdI dy pihly awD ivwc rfjsI, smfijk, Dfrimk hflfqF dy anukUl jF anusfrI nf hox dy bfvjUd sfihq isrjxf pRPuwilq hoeI. ies sMdrB ivwc pRo[mohn isMG dI ieh itwpxI pRsMigk bxdI hY, dy ivwc cfry pfsy afpo-DfpI, inrfqf, ivfd aqy ivGTnmeI kqIaF pUry orF qy AuBr ky psr rhIaF sn qF vI sfihq isrjxf ny ienHF kqIaF sfhmxy eIn mMnxo nFh kr idwqI aqy bhuq sfry AuGy lyKk aqy AunHF dIaF amr klf-ikRqF sfzy qwk puwjIaF.
sfihwq mfnvI smfj dy hr vrg leI iliKaf imldf hY. vwzI Aumr dy ivakqI vFg bwcf vI ies mfiDam dy rIey igafn, Aupdy aqy mnorMjn hfsl krdf hoieaf afpxI sIaq dI buinafd nUM mjbUq bxfAuNdf hY. bwcf sfzy smfj dI iewk mhwqvpUrn iekfeI hY. Aus nUM mih bwcf afK ky hI nraMdf nhIN kr dyxf cfhIdf ikAuNik vwzI Aumr dy ivakqI vFg Aus dIaF afpxIaF loVF, smwisafvF aqy afkFiKafvF hn. Aus nUM rftr df BivwK ikhf jFdf hY. Aus dI iswiKaf-sMskfr iksy vI rftr dy iswiKaf sMskfr df pRqIk hY. bfl mnoivigafnIaF ny qF bwcy dI iswiKaf aqy Aus aMdr nYiqk kdrF kImqF dy sMcfr pRqI ivy sfvDfnI vrqx dI qfkId kIqI hY. nfl ies gwl nUM vI idVH krvfieaf hY ik bfl sfihwq df bwcy dy jIvn ivwc mhwqvpUrn rol huMdf hY.
bfl-sfihwq dy ieiqhfsk sMdrB, ies dI vrqmfn siQqI aqy ies Kyqr nUM drpy cuxOqIaF bfry gwl krn qoN pihlF sfnUM bwcy dI mfniskqf nUM smJx dI rUrq hY. ajokf bwcf smyN dI AuQl-puQl df burI qrHF ikfr hoieaf ipaf hY. globlfeIjyn dy ajoky dOr ivwc Auh smfijk ivsMgqIaF aqy rfjnIqk dMglfhI hyT burI qrHF dwibaf hoieaf ipaf hY. ielYktRfink sUcnf qMqr ny Aus nUM ihnI qOr qy ieMnf pRBfivq kIqf hoieaf hY ik Auh afpxI sdIaF purfxI ivrfsq nfloN tuwtdf jf irhf hY. ajoky sIrIalF, kfrtUn nYtvrk aqy ieMtrnYt pRxflI ny Aus dI sfihwqk BuwK nUM dbf ky rwK idwqf hY. anyk iksm dy svflF ivwc iGry hoey Aus dy bcpn nUM koeI Auicq rfh nhIN lwB irhf. ijwDr dyKo, Aus leI vMgfrF hI vMgfrF hn. iehI kfrn hY ik Auh awj AuQl-puQl (isolated) vflI iMdgI ijAuN irhf hY. kihx nUM qF BfvyN ajoky ivigafn ny Aus dI cyqnf nUM byhwd ivkisq kr idwqf hY prMqU sfihwq, siBafcfr aqy klfmeI vrqfiraF ny ijs cMgy qrIky nfl Aus dI cyqnf nUM ivkisq krky smyN dy hfx dI bxfAuxf sI, Auh vrqfrf awj Aus dI iMdgI nfloN tuwt ky ikqy ipCFh rih igaf hY. iehI kfrn hY ik ajokf bfl sfihwq afpxI bfl-avsQf ivcoN nhIN inkl irhf. bfl sfihwq iewk aijhf vrqfrf hY ijs ny bwcy dI cyqnf nUM ivkisq krky Aus nUM afpxI kOm aqy ivrsy dIaF jVHF nfl joV ky rwKx df kfrj krnf huMdf hY, Aus aMdr nvIN smrwQf aqy qfkq Br ky afAux vfly smyN dy sMktF df tfkrf krn dI qOIk pRdfn krnI huMdI hY prMqU pMjfbI ivwc afpoDfpI df ijhVf gYr-AusfrU vfqfvrx pYdf ho igaf hY, Aus nfl bwcy dI mfniskqf zgmgf rhI hY. iehI kfrn hY ik kroVF pMjfbIaF dI igxqI ivwc vI Auh afpxy afp nUM iekwlf aqy icMqq mihsUs kr irhf hY.
ivv pwDr qy bfl sfihwq dI siQqI df mulFkx kIqf jfvy qF ieh gwl Aupr ky sfhmxy afAuNdf hY ik BfvyN sfihwq dI ilKqI rvfieq sdIaF purfxI hY prMqU sfihwq dy nraMdfy gey sMvydnIl Kyqr XfnI bfl sfihwq pRqI AudfsInqf vflI avsQf hI rhI hY. vwzy aqy sQfipq lyKkF ny ies nUM AuNj hI mfxqf nhIN idwqI, pwCmI mulkF dy pRkfkF nUM Cwz ky BfrqI pRkfkF ny ies nUM Cfpxf hmyf Gfty vflf sOdf smiJaf hY aqy mfipaF ny afpxy bwicaF nUM cMgIaF sfihqk ikqfbF pVHn leI pRyirq krn dI QF kyvl qy kyvl pfT-kRm pusqkF dIaF pusqkF pVHn leI or pfieaf hY. ajoky iswiKaf pRxflI ny boJl islybsF aqy Bfry bsiqaF nfl bwcy dy srIrk aqy mfnisk dovF nUM hI afpxI lpyt ivwc ilaf hoieaf hY. kuwJ cMgf pVHn leI nf imlx kfrn afpxy suhj-suafd dI pUrqI vfsqy bflF dI nvIN pIVHI tI[vI[, ieMtrnYt aqy mobfeIl dI dldl ivwc DsdI jf rhI hY ijs dy sbwb Auh afpxI ivrfsq aqy nYiqk jIvn muwlF nfloN dUr huMdI jf rhI hY.
gwl ivv pwDr dy bfl sfihwq dy sMdrB ivwc kIqI jfvy qF aTHfrvIN sdI dy ipqly awD ivwc do jrmn BrfvF jYkb igRm (1785-1863) aqy ivlIam igRm (1786-1859), jo buinafdI qOr qy KojI, Bff ivigafnI aqy smfj fsqrI sn, ny pUry jrmn ivwc GuMm GuMm ky bwicaF leI bhuq sfrIaF khfxIaF iekwiqRq kIqIaF. iesy lVI ivwc zYnIal zYPo (1660-1731), zYnmfrk dy ikRcIan aYNzrsn (1805-1875), ietlI dy kfrlo klodI (1826-1890), aMgRy jfn rsikn (1819-1900) ny bwicaF leI AupXogI aqy lokipRX sfihwq dI rcnf kIqI. kfrlo klodI df sdfbhfr bfl nfiek ipnokIE awj ivv dy bwcy bwcy dI ubfn Aupr hY.
bwcy dI pihlI gurU mF huMdI hY. mF hI Aus dI muwZlI sFJ sfihwq nfl puafAuNdI hY. pMjfbI sfihq dy smfnFqr jykr pMjfbI bfl sfihq dI ieiqhfsk prMprf nUM Poilaf jfvy qF asIN dyKdy hF ik Bfrq dIaF dUjIaF BffvF dy bfl sfihwq vFg pMjfbI bfl sfihwq vI pwCmI bfl sfihq qoN pRBfivq hY. pMjfbI bfl dI pihlI mOiKk sfihqk sFJ mF dy mUMhNo inklIaF ihd vrgIaF imwTIaF lorIaF awlHV bwlHV bfvy df jF sON jf kfkf qUM vrgIaF hor rs BrIaF lorIaF nfl pYNdI hY. rfq smyN mF-ipAu, dfdf-dfdI, nfnf-nfnI, BYx-Brf jF vzyrI Aumr dy hor sky-sMbMDIaF vloN bflF nUM suxfeIaF jfx vflIaF lok-khfxIaF nfl bfl sfihq dI mOiKk prMprf nUM bl imilaf. ies sMdrB ivwc pMjfbI lok mn ny keI khfxIaF nUM afpxI ismRqI ivwc sMBfilaf hoieaf hY. jdoN bfl ny irVHnf iswiKaf aqy QoVHI soJI sMBflI qF mF ny Auhdy koml hwQ qy AuNglI PyridaF pihlI mOiKk idlcsp khfxI CyVI, sfzy BolU dy hwQ KUMzI sI, isr BUMgI sI, pYrIN mOjy sI, Auh zMgr cfrn igaf sI, iewk kwtf sI, iewk vwCf sI. iksy ny dyiKaf hovy? Auh ikhVy pfsy igaY? lgdY aYDr igaY. afh jFdI aY pYV, afh jFdI aY pYV afKidaF jd Aus dy koml hwQ qy cwkr kwtdI AuNgl Aus dI bFh rfhIN iekdm Aus dI kwC qk puwjdI hY qF bwcy dy ThfikaF nfl kudrq vI iKViKVfAux lwgdI hY. ies aml nfl bwcy nUM ijMnI mfnisk KuI anuBv huMdI hY, Aus df ikaff lgfAuxf mukl huMdf hY. Aus dI Auqsukqf vDfAux leI aijhy anyk Coty Coty mOiKk, kfivk aqy glpI nmUinaF ny bfl sfihq leI afDfr iqafr kr idwqf.
bfl sfihwq sMbMDI crcf krn qoN pihlF ies dy buinafdI mnorQ nUM jfxn-smJx dI rUrq hY. bfl sfihwq df kfrj bwcy nUM sihj ZMg nfl mnorMjn pRdfn krdy hoey Aus df mfnisk ivkfs krnf hY. bwcy Aupr iswiKaf jF Aupdy Qopxf Auicq nhIN hY. ihMdI dy pRiqiiTq bfl sfihwq icMqk zf[rqnfkr pFzya dI Dfrxf hY, jy bwcy ivwc kilafxkfrI Bfvnf aqy sONdrXprK (Aesthetics Sense) jfigRq krnI hovy qF Aus dIaF smUihk afkFiKafvF aqy ijigafsfvF df, skUlI iswiKaf dy nfl hI, ivkfs afvk hY. bfl mn dIaF cMcl ijigafsfvF nUM nvIn anuBv aqy sMklpF rfhIN pRyirq krn df muwK sfDn bfl sfihwq hI hY. spt hY ik bfl sfihwq aijhf srokfr hY ijhVf bwcy dy mfnisk ivkfs ivwc vfDf krdf hoieaf Aus df mnorMjn krdf hY aqy cirwqr-AusfrI vI.
pwCmI sfihwq aqy BfrqI bfl sfihwq dy sMdrB ivwc pMjfbI bfl sfihwq dy ipCokV vwl qYrdI nr mfrnI Auicq hovygI. pMjfbI ivwc bfl sfihq dy ilKqI rUp ivwc muwZly bIj vIhvIN dy afrMB ivwc imldy hn. iesy kfl dOrfn lflf ibhfrI lfl purI dI bflkF dI iswiKaf (1910) aqy amr isMG dIaF bflF dI sugfq , Koqy dI hwzbIqI , sohxU dI bwkrI , JUTf dfavf , yr df drbfr , phfVI muMzf , PuwlF dIaF gwlF , mfsI lUMbVI aqy bfby dy goNglU afid pusqkF vI pMjfbI bfl sfihq dIaF muZlIaF ikRqF ivwc umfr huMdIaF hn ijnHF ivwc vMn-suvMny iviaF qy rOick khfxIaF hn. ies AuprMq pRo[ivwidaf sfgr ny ipafry gIq , igafnI lfl isMG guwjrFvflIaf dIaF son icVI , imwTIaF khfxIaF , syaF df svfl, pMj PUlF rfxI aqy rfxo df sfeIkl vrgIaF drjnF pusqkF dI rcnf kIqI. ibRj lfl fsqrI, mohn isMG vYd aqy mf[dsONDf isMG muqfk ny CotI Aumr dy bfl pfTkF leI AuhnF dI afpxI mfq-Bff ivwc suKYn YlI vflf bfl sfihq ricaf. iesy dOrfn gurbK isMG pRIqlVI ny pRIqngr qoN bfl sMdy bfl rsfly rfhIN bwicaF nfl vzmuwlI sFJ pfeI. ieh rsflf awDI sdI qoN vI vwD Cpdf irhf hY. pRIqlVI ny gulfbI aYnkF , juwgF purfxI gwl , bMm bhfdr , prIaF df mocI , gulfbo , murfdF pUrIaF krn vflf KUh , rIJF dI KwzI , qfj qy srU aqy koDry dI rotI vrgIaF aijhIaF glpI aqy gwd-pusqkF ilKIaF. AuprMq igafnI DnvMq isMG sIql ny aMimRqsr qoN sIql bfl-sIrI˒ aqy sIql bfl sfihq pRkfn lVI aDIn kivqf, khfxI, nftk, cutkly aqy buJfrqF afid vMngIaF ivwc 250 qoN vwD bfl pusqkF dI rcnf kIqI. iehnF ivcoN kuwJ iewk dy nF sIql somy, sIql miTafeIaF, sony df gulylf (1949), jfdU dIaF khfxIaF (1949), jfdU df lYNp (1950), prIaF dI rfxI (1952), srl khfxIaF aqy iek sI julfihaf , trtr zwzU , nIlU qy Ausdf bkrotf , icqrf imqrf , lfl bfdfh, alI bfbf cflI cor aqy yr df QwpV afid pusqkF nfl pMjfbI bwicaF ivwc rcnfqmk-jfg lgfeI aqy AuhnF dI pRiqBf nUM inKfrn dI koi kIqI. moqIaF (jnvrI, PrvrI, 1930), `cMn (apRYl, 1931), bflk (jnvrI, 1932), bfl sMdyȒ (jnvrI 1942) skUl (agsq, 1946) aqy bfl sMsfr (1946) bfl rsfilaF dI sMpfdnf df kfrj afrMiBaf. bfl drbfr , jIvn pRBfq , bIbf rfxf , pMKVIaF, pRfiemrI iswiKaf sMpfidq hox lwgy. iesy pRkfr hMsqI dunIaf, alHV blHV aqy inwkIaF krUMblF bfl rsfly sMpfidq hox nfl pMjfbI dy ilKfrIaF ivwc bwicaF pRqI cyqnf df aihsfs hox lwg ipaf.
1947 qoN pihlF dy hornF bfl sfihwq ilKfrIaF ivcoN mfstr krm isMG gMgfvflf, nOrMg isMG, nfnk isMG, aMimRqf pRIqm, drn isMG afvfrf aqy blvMq gfrgI vrgy ilKfrIaF ny vI pMjfbI ivwc bfl sfihq ilKx dI idlcspI ivKfeI prMqU AuhnF vwloN bfl sfihq qlIk dy kfrj Aus iwdq aqy pRiqbwDqf nfl nhIN sn Cohy gey, ijs pRiqbwD nfl AuhnF ny pRoVH sfihwq dIaF dUjIaF isnF pRqI afpxI sFJ aqy iMmyvfrI ivKfeI. pMjfbI ivwc bwicaF leI ilKx ivwc pRo[guridafl isMG aqy ajfieb icwqrkfr, pRo[pRIqm isMG vrgy burg lyKkF ny ijhVI pRiqbwDqf df iehfr kIqf, Aus nfl dUjy ilKfrI vI ies Kyqr vwl afAux leI pRyirq hox lwgy. jy asIN igxqI krn lwgIey qF myry vwloN inwjI qOr qy iekwiqRq aMkiVaF aqy qwQF muqfibk AuhnF bfl sfihwq lyKkF dI ieh igxqI 500 qoN Aupr twp jFdI hY ijnHF ny Gwto Gwt pMjfbI ivwc iewk bfl sfihq pusqk dI rcnf kIqI hY. bhuq sfry lyKk aijhy vI hn ijhVy cfr cfr, pMj pMj dhfikaF qoN awj vI Ausy gqIIlqf aqy pRiqbwDqf nfl ilKdy af rhy hn. nvIN pIVHI dy lyKk ies Kyqr vwl ivy qOr qy ruicq hoey hn.
iewQy ieh mslf pYdf huMdf hY ik ieMnI vwzI mfqrf ivwc igxfqmk rcnf hox dy bfvjUd guxfqmk pihlU ikAuN nhIN Aupr ky sfhmxy af irhf? ies nUM asIN ajy afpxy icMqn df ivf bxfieaf hI nhIN hY. aijhy sfihwqkfr vI hn ijnHF ny bwicaF leI iewk sO -sO pusqkF ilKx df dfavf kIqf hY, prMqU vyKx vflI gwl ieh hY ik jy AuhnF dIaF bfl sfihq pusqkF df ivY vsqU aqy ilp dI idRtI qoN jfief ilaf jfvy qF bfl sfihwq dI ksvwtI Aupr ikMnIaF ku pusqkF KrIaF AuqrngIaF? iewQy mYN nYnl buwk trwst, ieMzIaf dI Audfhrx dyxI rUrI smJdf hF. ies adfry ny idwlI vrgy mhFngr ivwc sQfipq hox dy bfvjUd vI ijhVf vzmuwlf kfrj dUjIaF BfrqI BffvF dy bfl sfihwq nUM pMjfbI ivwc qrmfAux df aihm kfrj kIqf hY, Auh afpxI imsfl afp hY. ies trst ny Aus bfl sfihwq nUM pMjfbI ivwc anuvfd krn df bIVf cuwikaf ijs nfl pMjfbI bwicaF dI cyqnf mF bolI pMjfbI nfl juV ky AuhnF aMdr CupI hoeI sfihqk pRiqBf nUM hlUxf dyvy. ies sMdrB ivwc mYN do bfl pusqkF, ijhVIaF pMjfbI ivwc hI anuvfidq hn, dIaF imsflF dyxIaF Auicq smJdf hF. supRiswD bMgflI sfihwqkfr rfibMdrnfQ Tfkur dI khfxI kfbulI vflf bVI sMvydnIl aqy mnoivigafnk prqF vflI bfl khfxI hY. pRoN ieMdy duafrf anuvfidq ies khfxI ivwc mYly kucYly kwpVy pihnx vflf rihmq kfbulI vflf lyKk dI pMj virHaF dI bytI imMnI nfl iewk jbfqI irqf joV bYTdf hY. Aus nUM imMnI ivcoN afpxI Aus nMnHI bytI df rUp nr afAuNdf rihMdf hY ijs nUM AuhnUM afpxy kfr ivhfr dy islisly ivwc kfbul Cwz ky afAuxf pYNdf hY. Auh imMnI nUM corI Cupy myvy qy pYsy vI idMdf hY. iewk jurm ivwc jylH dI sf Bugqx AuprMq kfbulIvflf iPr afpxy dy qoN klkwqy lyKk kol afAuNdf hY qF Aus nUM pqf lgdf hY ik imMnI df qF Aus idn ivafh hY. Auh qrly BrI afvf ivwc lyKk nUM puwCdf hY, kI mYN iewk vfr ibtIaf nUM nhIN vyK skdf? lyKk vloN ivKfeI jf rhI afnfkfnI dyK ky kfblI vflf bVI Bfvukqf nfl afpxy iZwly kuVqy dI jyb ivcoN iewk kfg df mYlf ijhf tukVf kwZky my qy ivCf idMdf hY. lyKk vyKdf hY ik kfg `qy iksy nMnHy jyhy hwQ dy pMjy dI Cfp hY jo kfbulIvfly dI afpxI bytI dI Cfp hY. Aus dI Xfd dI ieh infnI CfqI nfl lf ky Auh hr sfl klkwqy dIaF sVkF qy myvf vycx leI afAuNdf hY. lyKk dI bwcI dy koml hwQF dI CUh hI Aus dy Audfs qy DuKdy sIny ivwc aMimRq GoldI hY, ijs df afnMd kyvl kfblIvflf hI mihsUs kr skdf hY. ieAuN ieh khfxI iewk jbfqI khfxI hY jo 12 qoN 15 sfl dy Aumr jut dy bflF leI vDyry ZukvIN qy sihj suBfivk iswD huMdI hY. ieh bfl khfxI BfrqI bfl sfihq df gOrv hY.
iesy islisly dI iewk hor pusqk hY pusqk hY zbilAU zbilAU zbilAU[sMGxf jMgl[kfm. ieh pusqk ihMdI dy cricwq bfl sfihwq ilKfrI zf[hrIikRn dyvsry duafrf ilKI aqy pMjfbI khfxIkfr nCwqr duafrf anuvfidq hY. ies bfl nfvl df nfiek ibhfrI bFdr Aus nvIN pIVHI dI pRiqinDqf krdf hY ijhVI kMipAUtr vrgI afDuink sUcnf qknIk pRxflI df pUrf igafn rwKdI hY. Auh jMgl ivwc kMipAUtr ilaf ky afpxI nvIN vYbsfeIt www[sMGxf jMgl[kfm KolHdf hY qF jo smUh jMgl vfsI jfnvrF aqy AuhnF dy rihx sihx afid dy mukMml dy vyrvy iekwqr kIqy jf skx. ieMtrnYt pRxflI dy mfiDam rfhIN arIkf-sfeIbyrIaf dy pU pMCI afps ivwc dosqI krdy hn. purfxI pIVHI df buwZf JumrU irwC ieh sux ky hYrfn rih jFdf hY jdoN Aus df nOjvfn puwqr JmrU Aus nUM ieh dwsdf hY ik Aus ny rUs dI sPYd irwC lVkI nfl dosqI kr leI aqy Auh Aus nfl ivafh vfsqy vI iqafr hY. jMgl dI buwZI pIVHI ieMtrnYt rIey aijhy rfbqy dy hwk ivwc nhIN huMdI pr AusfrU soc df pRqIk yr isMG ibhfrI bFdr dI Xojnf qoN Ku huMdf hY jo sfry ivv dy jMglF nUM iewk ipMz ivwc bdl irhf hY. KoKl igwdV df bdmf puwqr jYkfl Aur jy[ky[ibhfrI bFdr dy ies nvyN kfrj qoN Kfr Kf ky Aus nUM nuksfn pucfAux dI sfi rcdf hY. jYkfl igwdV df vwzf Brf mYkfl vI jMgl ivwc iewk aijhy ivv ivafpI sMgTn dy muwKIey vjoN AuBrdf hY ijs df kMm jMgl ivwc dihqvfd PYlfAuxf hY. Aus df afpxf skf Brf mYkfl Aus nUM afqmGfqI bMbF vflI jYkt puaf ky jMgl ivwc qbfhI mcfAux leI afKdf hY pr jMglI jfnvrF dIaF kImqI jfnF lYxf jYkfl dI afqmf nhIN mMndI. jYkfl ibhfrI bFdr aqy hor mOaj jMgl vfsIaF dI pRyrnf sdkf afpxf dut suBfa Cwz ky jMgl dI AunqI dy kMmF ivwc juwt jFdf hY aqy sMGxy jMgl dy sUcnf mMqrI df drjf hfsl krdf hY. Auh afpxy Brf mYkfl nUM vI ihMsf df rfh Cwzx leI afKdf hY. ieAuN kMipAUtrI qfxy-bfxy dI mdd nfl jMgl iewk aiq afDuink iksm dy shUlqF nfl lYs afdrk smfj ivwc qbdIl ho jFdf hY. ieh dovyN pusqkF smuwcy BfrqI bfl sfihwq ivwc anuidq ho cuwkIaF hn aqy hr Bff dy bfl sfihwq ilKfrIaF leI iewk iksm dI cuxOqI dy rUp ivwc vI AuBrIaF hn.
bfl sfihwq nUM ajoky dOr ivwc ijhVIaF cuxOqIaF drpy hn, AuhnF bfry crcf krnI bxdI hY. sfieMs aqy qknflojI dy ajoky Xuwg ivwc rfjy rfxIaF dIaF khfxIaF lwd cuwkIaF hn prMqU iPr vI ieh bVf icMqfjnk pihlU hY jdoN igafn-ivigafn dI rOnI vMzx vflf aiDafpk qbkf hI aMD-ivvfsF df ikfr hovy aqy Auh bwicaF aMdr lq kdrF kImqF df pRcfrn krn lwg pey qF ieho ijhf bfl sfihwq nvIN pIVHI df mfrg drn ikvyN kr skdf hY? mYnUM ipRMsIpl iqRlocn isMG hurF vwloN bwicaF dIaF AusfrU qy ishqmMd rucIaF vfly sfihwq dy sMdrB ivwc sFJf kIqf vfikaf Xfd af irhf hY. afpxy inwjI qrby dy hvfly nfl AuhnF dwisaf sI ik iewk sfieMs aiDafpk ieh gwl dfavy nfl ikhf krdf sI myrI sfieMs lYb ivwc af jfE, mYN quhfnUM ijs dI kho, afqmf bulf idMdf hF. mhfqmf gFDI, gurU nfnk, sRI rfm cMdr quhfzy vwzy vzyry[[[bws, quhfnUM incf rwK ky iewk Zwkx Aupr AuNglI rwKx dI loV hY. ieh sux ky ipRMsIpl sfihb horF nUM ies qrHF lwigaf sI ijvyN Auh aigafnI aiDafpk swc dI Bfl krn vflI qIrQF nfloN vI pivwqr pRXogflf df Gor apmfn kr irhf hovy. Blf aijhy aiDafpk bflF aMdr ikvyN ivigafnk rucIaF aqy ivigafnk idRtI dy bIj bIjxgy? ieh qF ajy afp hI Gor aMDkfr ivwc Btk rhy hn. bflF leI ivigafnk sfihq hI ies leI loV hY ikAuNik ijhVf kfrj aiDafpkF, mfipaF jF pfT pusqkF dy iMmy lgfieaf igaf sI, vuh isry nhIN ciVHaf. bflF dI AusfrI asMqulq qy Aulfr ijhI ho rhI hY. Auh pVH ilK ky vI iMdgI dIaF swcfeIaF qoN kohF dUr bYTy hn. kudrqI vrqfiraF dy KojI bxn dI QF `qy Auh ajy vI pujfrI bxdy jf rhy hn. asIN sfry duKI hF. bfl BMbl BUisaF ivwc guafcy idwsdy hn. ikAuN? ikAuNik asIN ajy qwk ivigafnk idRJtIkox nhIN apxfieaf. ajy vI sfzIaF sfrIaF socF qy kMmF df afDfr Drm hY.
bfl sfihwq ivwc idlcspI lYx vfly kuwJ ilKfrI nvyN nvyN pRXogF qy qribaF dy nF hyT bfl sfihwq dI isrjxf kr rhy hn. Auh afpxIaF khfxIaF ivwc jMgl dy bfdfh yr nUM rgo vwloN afpxf mihmfn bxf ky srHoN dy sfg qy mwkI dIaF rotIaF nfl fqrdfrI krvf rhy hn. bwicaF leI ies qrHF dy sunyhy dyxy AuhnF dy jIvn nfl iKlvfV krn vflI gwl hY. ieh pRivrqI qrnfk hY ikAuNik zr hY, kwlH nUM aijhI syDhIx qy byqukI khfxI qoN pRBfivq ho ky CwqbIV ivwc icVIaf Gr vyKx gey nMnHI Aumr dy bwcy ipMjry ivwc bMd yr nfl ieh soc ky hwQ nf imlfAux lwg pYx ik ieh qF AuhI yr hY, ijs ny mwkI dIaF rotIaF nfl sfg KfDf sI.. jy ieh rgo df dosq bx skdf hY qF sfzf ikAuN nhIN? bfl sfihwq ivwc lq kdrF kImqF dI pykfrI nfl lYxy dy dyxy pY skdy hn. Yr[[.
ajoky bfl sfihwq ivwc drpy smfjk msilaF nUM ikvyN aqy iks YlI ivwc py kIqf jfxf cfhIdf hY? ieh sMkt vI sfzy snmuK hY. hux qwk pMcqMqr , ihqopdyȒ , eIsp jF kQfsirq sfgr qy yKicwlI vrgy sRoq hI bfl sfihwq vjoN svIkfry jFdy sn prMqU aj dy ivigafnk qy ieMtrnYt dy mfny ivwc iehnF sRoqF dI pRsMigkf aqy sfriQkqf ikMnI ku rih geI hY, ies bfry gMBIr sMvfd dI rUrq hY. zF hrIikRn dyvsry ny iesy iksm dy msilaF nUM afDfr bxf ky AuhnF bfl sfihwq ilKx vfilaF nUM iewk vMgfr idwqI sI ik ijhVy awj vI prMprfgq aqy rvfieqI iksm dIaF khfxIaF ilK rhy hn. zf[dyvsry dI Dfrxf sI ik sfzy kol jo bfl sfihwq hux qwk AuplbD irhf hY, Auh BfrqI sMdrB ivwc ikMnf ku AupXogI irhf hY aqy awj ieh ikMnf ku sfrkQk hY. jykr ieiqhfsk aqy prMprfgq idRtI qoN ies ivy qy socoN qF bfl sfihwq dy rUp ivwc sfzy dy ivwc anyk nIqI kQfvF, pOrfx kQfvF aqy lok kQfvF sdIaF qoN hI bwicaF df mtpRcfvf krdIaF af rhIaF hn. ienHF ivcoN sB qoN vwD cricq pusqkF rhIaF hn pMcqMqr. aqy ies qoN bfad kQfsirqsfgr aqy jfqk kQfvF prMqU awj nIqI boD kQfvF dI AupXogqf bfry Bfrq ivwc hI nhIN, sMsfr dy anykF ivkisq dyF ivwc vI ikUM kIqf jf irhf hY. ies dy keI kfrn hn. iewk qF ieh ik smfj dy ivigafnk, qknIkI qy snaqI ivkfs dy Xuwg ivwc bwcy ieMny XQfrQvfdI huMdy jf rhy hn ik Auh iksy vI gwl nUM sihjy hI pRvfn nhIN krnf cfhuMdy. ud pMcqMqrkfr ny vI rfjy dy mUrK rfj kumfrF nUM iswiKaf dyx leI kQfvF df shfrf ies leI ilaf sI ik Auh mnorMjn dy mfiDam rfhIN nIqI dIaF gwlF nUM gRihx kr lYx prMqU afDuink Xuwg ivwc lwgdf hY ik ieh mfiDam ieMnf purfxf ho igaf hY ik bwcy ies nUM gRihx krn leI iqafr nhIN.
dUjy pfsy sfzy keI ilKfrI swjx kyvl Pl, Puwl, grmI-srdI jF vrKf ruwq, idn-iqhfr, skUlI vsqF, cMd qfry, sUrj, icVI qoqy kF qy kuwqf ibwlI vrgy jnOrF jF vsqF nUM hI bfl sfihwq leI ivf-vsqU dI ksvwtI smJ bihMdy hn. grmI hovy qF aMb jF qrbUj qy TMiZaF dI gwl hovygI. srdI hovy qF mUMgPlI-gwk df ikr af jfvygf. vrKf hovy qF bwdl qy ibjlI dI gVgVfht, cMd dI gwl hovy qF mfmy df ibMb AuBr afAuNdf hY. sUrj hovy qF dfdf bx jFdf hY. ajoky smyN ivwc bfl sfihwq iehnF rvfieqI aqy clMq ijhy iviaF qoN dUr qwk PYl cuwkf hY. bfl kivqf ivwc ieh pRivrqI kuwJ vDyry vyKx ivwc af rhI hY. socx df muwdf ieh hY ik aijhIaF kivqfvF bwicaF nUM iks hwd qwk afpxy nfl joVn ivwc smrwQ huMdIaF hn. iehI kfrn hY ik vfr vfr aijhy duhrfAUpUrvk iviaF vflI smwgrI pVHdf pVHdf bwcf Aukq jFdf hY qy Auh aijhIaF ilKqF nUM ivckfr Cwz ky ikRkt mYc Kyzx leI clf jFdf hY qy jF tI[vI[df irmot hwQ ivwc PV lYNdf hY. bfl sfihwq pRqI AudfsInqf df iewk vwzf aqy buinafdI kfrn ieh vI hY ik sfzf ilKfrI vrg bwicaF nUM bdl rhIaF pRsiQqIaF aqy bdl rhy smyN dy anusfr sfihqk smwgrI dyx ivwc ikDry nf ikDry asPl ho ky rih igaf hY. bfad ivwc sYmInfrF aqy kfnrMsF ivwc ieho muwdy AuBrdy hn ik nvIN pIVHI dIaF sfihwqk rucIaF nUM vIzIE aqy tI[vI[ny ingl ilaf hY. bwicaF Aupr aijhy afrop lgfAux qoN pihlF sfnUM lyKk vrg nUM afpxy igrybfn vwl JfqI mfrnI cfhIdI hY. ieh vI iewk vwzI vMgfr hY ijhVI bfl sfihwq dy rfh ivwc aiVwkf bxI hoeI hY.
iewQy bwicaF dy sfihwq, swiBafcfr aqy iswiKaf nfl juVIaF sMsQfvF dI gwl krnI vI axAuicq nhIN hovygI. Bff ivBfg pMjfb ny hr sfl pMjfbI dy RomxI bfl sfihwq lyKk nUM ZfeI lwK rupey ngd purskfr dy ky bfl sfihwq nUM nraMdfI dI dldl ivcoN kwZx leI ijhVf hMBlf mfiraf igaf hY, Auh pRMsf df DfrxI hY. bfl sfihwq nfl juVy hoey lyKkF ivcoN hux qwk igafnI lfl isMG guwjrFvflIaf, suKdyv mfdpurI, ajfieb icwqrkfr, rfj dulfr, surjIq mrjfrf, mnmohn isMG dfAUN, jsbIr isMG jws, jsbIr Buwlr, suKvMq kOr mfn, PUlF rfxI, hrdyv cOhfn, pRym BUx goiel, mihMdr isMG mfnUMpurI (aqy iehnF sqrF dy lyKk smyq) lgBg vIh lyKkF nUM ieh snmfn pRfpq ho cuwkf hY prMqU dUjy pfsy ies ivBfg ny bfl aqy igafn sfihwq Xojnf aDIn keI vrHy pihlF XojnfvF afrMBIaF hoeIaF sn. msln igafn ivigafn nfl sMbMDq iviaF, ijnHF ivwc srnfmf, BUgol, sfDfrn igafn aqy hfs-rs sMbMDI pusqkF dy mukfbly krvfey jfx dI iprq virHaF qoN cwldI af rhI hY. prMqU iehnF ivcoN pihly qy dUjy nMbr qy afAux vfly KriVaF nUM krmvfr 1000 rupey qy 500 rupey dI quwC rfI hI pRdfn kIqI jFdI hY jdoN ik ieMny ku pYsy qF sMbMDq ivBfg nUM iqMn iqMn cfr cfr kfpIaF tfeIp aqy PotostYt krvf ky sbimt krvfAux Aupr hI Krc af jFdf hY. ieh rfI vDxI cfhIdI hY. dUjf, ies ivBfg kol bfl sfihwq dIaF bhuq sfrIaF pusqkF, ijhVIaF ivBfg ny lyKkF nUM bfkfiedf syvfl dy ky ilKvfeIaF sn, axCpIaF peIaF hn. mYN afpxI inwjI Audfhrx dyxI cfhF qF 12-13 sfl dy arsy qoN myrIaF keI bfl pusqkF axCpI sUrq ivwc ies ivBfg kol peIaF hn. ieh siQqI dUjy ilKfrIaF dI vI hY ijhVy afpxIaF bfl-pusqkF nUM virHaF qoN CpIaF vyKxIaF cfh rhy hn.
iesy islisly ivwc keI vrHy pihlF pMjfb dy swiBafcfrk mfmly aqy ajfieb Gr aqy pMjfb sfihwq akfdmI vwloN sFJy rup ivwc cMzIgVH ivKy bfl sfihwq Aupr iqMn rof kOmI sYmInfr df afXojn kIqf igaf sI. Aus sYmInfr ivwc pVHy gey prcy aqy hoeI ivcfr-crcf nUM pRiswD glpkfr aqy bfl sfihwq lyKk gurbcn isMG Buwlr ny bfl swiBafcfr qy sfihwq vrgI vzmuwlI pusqk ivwc pRvInqf nfl sMpfidq kIqf sI. Aus sYmInfr dOrfn siBafcfrk mfmly ivBfg dy qqkflIn skwqr ny vwzI igxqI ivwc juVy bfl sfihq lyKkF nUM Brosf idvfieaf sI ik Auh bfl sfihq qy siBafcfr akfzmI dI qjvI nUM CyqI hI hox vflI srkfrI mIitMg ivwc rwKxgy aqy afs pRgtfeI sI ik ieh vfjb mMg pRvfn kr leI jfvygI prMqU lgBg vIh sfl df arsf hox dy bfvjUd vI ieh vfiedf vPf nhIN ho sikaf. ies nfl pMjfbI mF bolI aqy ies dy bfl sfihwq dy ivkfs dI gqIIlqf ivwc KVoq af geI. nYnl kONsl afP aYjUkynl rIsrc aYNz tryinMg arQfq aYn[sI[eI[afr tI[, nvIN idwlI vwloN hr sfl bfl sfihwq lyKkF aqy pRkfkF koloN 5-15 sfl dI Aumr juwt dy bwicaF leI pusqkF aqy hwQ ilKqF purskfr ihq mMgvfeIaF jFdIaF sn. ies adfry vwloN cfr ihMdI leI aqy iewk iewk afsfmI, bMgflI, aMgryI, gujrfqI, kwnVH, kmIrI, milaflm, mnIpurI, mrfTI, AuVI, pMjfbI, sMsikRq, isMDI, qiml, qYlgU aqy AurdU leI pRdfn kIqf jfdf sI, ijs qihq ds hfr rupey aqy momYNto afid pRdfn kIqy jFdy sn prMqU ies adfry vwloN vI bfl sfihwq dy ivkfs leI afrMBI ies Xojnf df keI vrHy pihlF Bog pY cuwkf hY. ies nfl hornF BfrqI BffvF dy bfl sfihwq dy nfl nfl pMjfbI bfl sfihwq dI ivkfs dr nUM Dwkf vwijaf hY. ies dy ivprIq pMjfbI XUnIvristI, pitaflf ny pMjfbI bfl sfihwq dy vK vK KyqrF nUM afDfr bxf ky ijhVy Koj kfrj afrMBy hn, Aus nfl ies Kyqr ivwc aflocnfqmk-crcf iCVn dIaF sMBfvnIaF moklIaF hoeIaF hn. hux qwk Bfrq dIaF smuwcIaF XUnIvristIaF ivcoN pMjfbI XUnIvristI, pitaflf nUM ies gwl df ishrf jFdf hY ijs ny pMjfbI bfl sfihwq Aupr pI-aYc[zI aqy aYm[iPwl vrgy Koj kfrjF nUM mfxqf dy ky ies Kyqr dI pRmfixkqf iswD kIqI hY. pMjfbI bfl sfihwq dy ilKfrIaF nUM iewk plytPfrm qy iekwTf krn df iewk pRfjYkt pMjfbI bfl sfihwq lyKk koȒ vI ies XUnIvristI ny iehnF sqrF dy lyKk nUM pMjfbI sfihwq aiDaYn ivBfg dI mfarq sONipaf hY. pMjfb swQ lFbVf (jlMDr), pMjfbI sfihq sBf mohflI aqy pMjfbI sfihq akfzmI luiDafxf dIaF kfrgufrIaF df pMjfbI bfl sfihwq pRqI kfPI hF pwKI idRtIkox hY. iehnF sMsQfvF ny bfl sfihwq dy ivkfs ivwc vzmuwlf sihXog idwqf hY. pMjfbI sfihwq akfzmI, luiDafxf vwloN hr sfl bfl sfihwq dI srvoqm pusqk nUM mfqf jsvMq kOr srboqm mOilk bfl sfihq purskfr pRdfn kIqf jFdf hY ijs qihq lyKk nUM ds hfr rupey dI ngd rfI pRdfn kIqI jFdI hY. pRiswD icMqk pRo[pRIqm isMG aqy AuhnF dy Brf sR[kulvMq isMG hurF ny afpxy surgvfsI mfqf sRImqI jsvMq kOr dI Xfd ivwc pMjfbI sfihwq akfzmI, luiDafxf pfs iewk aYNzfAumYNt dI rkm jmHf krvfeI geI sI ijs qoN hox vflI afmdnI nfl ies Xojnf nUM AusfrU aqy pfrdrI qrIky nfl aMfm idwqf jf irhf hY. akfdmI df bfl sfihwq kfrnr, ijs ivwc bfl sfihwq dIaF lgBg 800 pusqkF mOjUd hn, bfl sfihwq dy KojfrQIaF leI iewk lfhyvMd sRoq mMinaf jf skdf hY. Yr . awj jdoN pMjfbI Bff dy Kqm hox dy dy pRgt kIqy jf rhy hn aqy pMjfb dI rfjDfnI cMzIgVH ivclI pMjfbIaF dI nvIN pOd mF-bolI pMjfbI nUM lgBg pUrI qrHF ivsfr aqy nkfr cuwkI hY, vrgI hflq ivwc pMjfbI ivwc bfl sfihwq nUM afDuink qknIkF dy hfx df bxfAux leI vsIilaF nUM qurMq lwB ky amlI rUp ivwc lfgU krn dI bhuq rUrq hY, vrnf swp lMGx qoN bfad lkIr ipwtx df koeI lfB nhIN hovygf. ies smuwcI ivcfr crcf qoN iswtf kwiZaf jf skdf hY ik jy asIN afpxy bwicaF aMdr cMgf sfihq pVHn dI rucI pYdf krnI hY qF pRoVH aqy sQfipq lyKkF nUM ies Kyqr pRqI nraMdfI df iqafg krnf pvygf, mfipaF, aiDafpkF aqy pRkfkF nUM ies Kyqr ivwc bxdf srdf Xogdfn pfAuxf pvygf. pMjfbI ivwc Cpdy bfl rsfilaF aqy abfrF ivwc Cpdy bwicaF dy aMkF aqy kflmF nUM vI afpxf imafr hor Aucf cuwkxf pvygf. jy asIN aijhIaF ivAuNqF nUM shI qrIky ivwc lfgU krn ivwc kfmXfb ho jfeIey qF XkInn pMjfbI ivwc bwicaF aqy lyKkF drimafn iewk aijhI sFJ sQfipq ho jfvygI ijs df lfB smuwcI pMjfbI Bff aqy ies dy sfihwq nUM hovygf.
aMq ivwc mYN iPr ipRMsIpl iqRlocn isMG hurF dI vMgfr, jo ajoky sMdrB ivwc sfzy bfl sfihwq ilKfrIaF nUM hlUxdI mihsUs huMdI hY, nfl afpxI sur imlfAuNdf hoieaf afKxf cfhFgf ik awj socx aqy krn dI rUrq hY ik ikho ijhf bfl sfihwq sfzy bwicaF df shI idf ivwc mfrg drn kr skdf hY? ivigafnk bfl sfihq dI rcnf eynI sOKI nhIN. ies sfgr ivwc qrn vflf jy qYrfkI dI klf ivwc mfihr nhIN jF Auh sfgrI CwlF dy suBfa nUM nhIN jfxdf qF incy hI Auh drkF nUM bolidaF Cwz ky lihrF ivwc guafc jfeygf. hF, jy qYrnf af jfey qF ies vrgf afnMd vI koeI hor nhIN. bfhr kMZy `qy bYT ky kyvl lihrF igxn nfl gwl nhIN bxnI. klmF vfilAu, jfgo, qYrfk bxo, inqro qy goqy KFdI ies pIVHI nUM swjrf, sucwjf qy sunwKf sfihq dy ky bcf lvo.

zf[drn isMG aft,
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