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mfstr BrpUr isMG

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

gurdfxf Zfb

 

- jrnYl isMG syKf

prvdgfr, apfr byaMq qUM, ijnf pCfqf scu cuMmF pYr mUM.. / kIrqn klf nUM Dfrimk kwtVqf dIaF vlgxF ivwc bMd nhIN kIqf jf skdf.

 

- blbIr isMG kMvl

kTpuqlIaF

 

- aMimRqpfl isMG KLflsf

sur isMGIaf BujMgI mfsko c

 

- amrjIq cMdn

bwbU mfn dy bhfny

 

- blivMdr gryvfl

nftk / BUq

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

BMzf BMzfrIaf [mohn BMzfrI

 

- goovrDn gwbI

eIvfn ielIc dI dUjI mOq

 

- ajmyr iswDU

bfl-sfihwq : siQqI aqy cuxOqIaF

 

- drn isMG aft (zf[)

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

snmfn icMnH

 

- crnjIq isMG pMnU

'kfkipwt' qoN bfhr bxy rihx df 'qIjI iDr' df pRvcn-'irm iJm prbq'

 

- blivMdr isMG gryvfl

khfxI irm iJm prbq` nUM pVHidaF

 

- blkfr isMG

KwtIaF imwTIaF XfdF

 

- blbIr iskMd

nfvl jflL coN klfqimkqf lwBidaF

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

pfsL XfdgfrI smfgm kYilPLornIaf
(10 julfeI 2010)

 

- suirMdr DMjl

nfnkf my ryl gwzI

 

- suKdyv iswDU

pfsL aqy hirMdr isMG mihbUb

 

- suirMdr DMjl

suwcI ikqfb

 

- amrjIq cMdn

ieh sB ivgVy hoey muMzy kuVIaF sn

 

- krm isMG ihstorIan

jdoN KLUn dy ipafsy glLIN lwg ky imly

 

- hrdIp isMG Kflsf

ryzIE leI avf-tYst

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

koicMg df byimsfl klfkfr
kYroN KyzH ivMg df aQLLlYitks koc: blijMdr isMG

 

- zf[ suirMdr mMz

duwD dyx vflI mwJ

 

- bljIq bfsI

crcf ivwc hY srqfj

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

ijwQoN sUrj AuWgdf hY

 

- ikrpfl kfk

ienklfb qF afh KVHY

 

- aqrjIq

surjIq pfqr

 

- moinkf kumfr

irm iJm prbq, dy aMg-sMg[[[

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

rotI

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

guV

 

- blbIr iskMd

myrf pfiksqfn

 

- suKdyv iswDU

aMimRqpfl isMG dy Kq (lyK) df juafb

 

- suKpfl

myrIaF ilKqF dy svfgq df iewk pfsf

 

- igafnI sMqoK isMG

jMglI ibwlI aqy snoa

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

vgdI ey rfvI
pMjfbI siBafcfr df gOrvlfhOr

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

pwcfsI virHaF df jsLn
(jIvnI: srdfr drsLn isMG)

 

- hrjIq atvfl

myrI dOlq myrIaF icwTIaF

 

- myjr mFgt

bwly Eey afDuink zfktro

 

- govrDn gwbI

BuipMdr pRIq dI kfiv-gUMj

 

- dyivMdr kOr

Drm aqy ivigafn iewk ivsLlysLx

 

- jsdIp isMG guxhIx

 do gLjLlF

 

- gurmIq KoKr

hMugfry

 


suwcI ikqfb
- amrjIq cMdn
 

 

myry apxy[ ismrqI lyK[ suKdyv iswDU[ sy 135[ Bytf: zyVH sO rupey[ lokgIq[ 2010

duafbI dI cfhxI vfI TyT pMjfbI c ilKI myry apxy ikqfb dI dunIaf dyKx bhuqI vwzI nhIN lgdI. ieh pVHidaF mY kuJ idn hI pihlF CpI sfieMsdfnF dI sfzy bRhmMz dI iKwcI postkfrz ijwzI qsvIr df cyqf afAuNdf irhf. hr bMdy df apxf bRhmMz hY; sfieMsdfnF df hor. dys duafby dy nkodr ko sqluwj dy byt dy vlYqIaF dy ipMz AuWDovf qy lfgly ipMzF df v hI ies ikqfb df jugrfIaf hY. ijvyN pf apxI kivqf apxy ipMz dy duafy dy vIh mIlF dy Gyry dI kivqf dsdf hY, EvyN suKdyv iswDU dI ikqfb myry apxy iehdy ipMz duafy dy vIh mIlF dy ipMzF dy iehdy apixaF dI vfrqf hY. kruxf (sihanUBUqI-hmdrdI) hI AuWcI-suwcI klf df gux huMdf hY. ieh gux ies ilKq c sfkfr hY. ies ivc mOjUd hr jIa jnOr Bgq kff kuwqf, ihrx mor qy hor qF hor bdmf vI pfTk apxy-apxy lgdy hn. ies ivc soc qy Bfvnf ieksur hY. Bfvnf bfhr nhIN zuwlHdI iPrdI. Bfvuk sMjm ajoky pMjfbI sfihq ivc durlwB hY.

ieh nkodr lfgly byt dI awDI sdI dI vfrqf hY. ieh ikqfb bIq gey vyly df mrsIaF nhIN, Auhdf jn hY. ieh QF myrI dyKI hoeI hY qy lok vI. eys leI vI mYN ieh ikqfb cfa nf pVHI qy ieh mY DUh pfAuNdI hY.

sMqfI qoN pihlF pMjfbI sfihq ivc poTohfr dI awkfsI huMdI rhI. Pyr guridwq isMG dI ikqfb myrf ipMz Cpx mgroN mflvf dys dI. duafby dI AuWqm awkfsI mihMdr isMG rMDfvy ny afpbIqI (nvXug 1985) ivc kIqI sI. sfDU isMG DfmI dIaF aMgryI ilKqF ivc vI huiafrpurI Jlkfry hn. prmjIq Jwj dI aMgryI c ilKI ikqfb df kucwjI pMjfbI c kIqf anuvfd ipwCy ijhy Cipaf sI. jlMDr vfy pfsy dI ksr hux suKdyv iswDU ny pUrI kr idwqI hY.

prvfs qy sMn sMqfI vIhvIN sdI dy pMjfb dy mhfn duKFq hn. prvfs dy bVy lokgIq imdy hn, ijnHF ivc aOrq Gr df dilwdr Dox prdysIN kmfeI krn gey apxy afdmI dMmF df loBI afK ky afrF lfAuNdI hY. koeI gIq nhIN dsdf ik Aus afdmI qy iksy dy puwq iksy dy pqI qy iksy dy ipAu qy kI bIqdI hoAUgI. qfieaf srdfrf isMG ilKq ivc idl psIjx vff ibafn hY:

ivCVn lwgy myry bfp ny mY ipafr idwqf qy ikhf: Gr df cyqf nf BuwlIN. qfey ny myrI jwPI BrI; awzIaF cuwk ky myry brobr hoieaf. mYN rqf ku inivaF. iehny myrf mwQf cuMimaf. jwPI ks leI. isr qy ipafr idwqf. Pyr mUMh prHF kr ilaf. ikhf kuC nhIN. mYN pihlI vfr qfieaf roNdf dyiKaf, Auh vI luk ky. (sf 40)

lyKk df jnm qF sMqfI mgroN df hY, pr bfr coN AuWjV ky afey apxy GridaF qoN inq sux-sux ky iliKaf dUxI dy phfVy vFg Xfd kIqf ibrqFq bfnI qvfrIdfnI df Krf nmUnf hY. ienHF dy ipMz dI muslmfn dfeI sMqfI vyly ipMz hI itkI rhI qy brkqy qoN hrnfm kOr ho geI qy sfrI Aumr apxf krm inBfeI geI. Auhdy bfry ilKq df afirI vfk hY: jy sfzI mF brkqy pfiksqfn cly jFdI, qF sf hrnfm kOr ikwQoN lwBxI sI. (sf 80)

sMqflI pihlF sfry pMjfbI pwg bMnHdy huMdy sI. ipClI sdI dy urU ivc prdysI hoey iswKF ny apxI pwg apxy kys apxy hwQIN lfh idwqy. srfBy vfy krqfr isMG dI boidaF vfI amrIkf c iKwcI qsvIr drI-ikrqI bfibaF aYvyN nhIN sI pwg bMnH idwqI. kys kql krvfAux df tuMbvF ibafn sfDU isMG DfmI dy nfvl mlUky c hY. blvMq gfrgI ny ies duwK df ibafn ijvyN apxI khfxI Jwg c kIqf sI, EvyN koeI iswK lyKfrI nhIN kr sikaf. mony iswKF rumfl vfy iswKF dI nvIN sl prdysF dI hI pYdfvfr hY. sMn pMjfhF qoN bfad Bgq isMG dI rIsy pMjfb c kys ktfAux qy isgtF pIx df nvF Yn kimAuinstF c afm sI qy nfsiqkqf aYvyN vfDU dI. mYN afp kys kql krvfAux ipwCoN keI sflF bfad kivqf kys ilKI qy muV ky kys rK ley. sMn 1899 ivc amrIkf c jf ky vsy pihly pMjfbI sur isMG ipMz dy bI isMG iZwloN dI pVdohqI qy rUs do vfrI gey drI buwD isMG dI BYx dI dohqI aYirkf sUrq aYNzrsn* ny hux jf ky ilm trbn bxfeI hY, ijs ivc kys lhfAuNdy iswK muMzy df sIn hY qy iehdf bhuqy iswKF ny burf qF mnfAuxf hI sI. hux qF pMjfb ivc vI iswK twbrF dy pwg vfy ivrly nOjvfn nr afAuNdy hn. suKdyv iswDU ny kql kys ilKq ivc apxI hwzbIqI ilKI hY ik iehdy GridaF qy kI bIqI; pr apxy mn dI gwl dwsxoN jk igaf.

nfnkf my ryl gwzI (sf 97) c suKdyv ny nkodr-jlMDr rsqy jmyr ko apxy nfnkIN jfx dI svfdlI Xfqrf ilKI hY. ieh qF gfhy-bgfhy nfnkIN jFdf hoxf, mYN iqMn sfl hr ro nkodroN jlMDr ryk gwzI c kOilj dI pVHfeI krn jFdf irhf. hux qF nkodr keI kOilj KuwlHy hoey hn, myry vyly iek vI nf sI. rsqy dy sfry tyx Mkr, Qfbky, jmyr qy lfielpur flsf kOilj hflt dunIaf dy suhxy qoN suhxy tyxF qoN vD ky hn. mYN ies sr bfbq ryl gwzI kivqf ilKI hY: eynI lMbI gwzI mYN hor ikqy nhIN dyKI/ eynI lMbI ijMnf nkodroN jlMDr/ ieh gwzI rukdI nhIN kdy/ phIey GuMmdy Esy QF afAuNdy rihMdy hn. (CMnf[ nvXug 1998)[

pMjfbI Drfql (lYNzskyp) dy kudrq dI rux-Jux dy gurbfxI ivc qF ikDry-ikDry drn huMdy hn; pr ajoky sfihq, icqRklf ivc ieh durlB hY. aiDafqm qoN ibnF vI suMdrqf dI vizafeI huMdI hY. BfeI vIr isMG dI kivqf ikwkr df ruwK, pUrn isMG dI ikqfb KuwlHy mYdfn, lflf DnI rfm cfiqRk dI fhpur kMZI vfI kivqf pyNzU jIvn qy bfrFmfh aqy sMqoK isMG DIr dI kivqf inwkI slytI sVk df totf pMjfbI lYNzskyp dI ivwkoilqrIaF imsflF hn. myry apxy df lyKk ieh kMm nsr ivc acyq kr igaf lgdf hY. suhxI imsfl:

sAux BfdoN dy idnIN mINh pYxy qy Jwl c cihl-pihl ho jfxI. ryq dy itwby vI hiraflI nf cihkxy. slvfV kfhI dy bUJy vD jfxy. BwKVf vI hrf-Brf ho jfxf. awk PMBVy hoxy. Kwb Gfh jF duwb ho jfxI qy KuMbF Aug afAuxIaf. quMimaF dIaF vylF vD jfxIaF. gyNdF vfgUM irVHdy iPrny. ivc ivc psUaF ny Kf vI lYxy. (sf 48)

lyKfrI dI ieh ikfieq hY ik ienHF dy ipMz dy drI rf isMG dI ikqy Xfdgfr nhIN bxI; Auh koeI Xfd nhIN krdf. eynf hI bhuq hI nhIN ik rf isMG dy ipMz dy muMzy ny bfby mn ivc vsf ky qyhu nf ieh lyK iliKaf hY. bd-ismrqI iksy vI pwQr dy buwq nfoN vD ky hY. sfzy sfihq c Blf ikMny ku XfdgfrI bd-icqR hn? BUaf cMno, vwzf sfDU soNh qy qfieaf srdfrf isMG aYsIaF XfdgfrI ilKqF c igxIaF jfieaf krngIaF. sfDF df ByV ijvyN ajoky pUrbI pMjfb dI isafsq dI ilm bxI peI hY.

ieho ijhIaF suwcIaF ikqfbF inq nhIN ilK huMdIaF qy nf hI CpdIaF hn. pMjfbI pRkfk apxy hwQ afey kMpIAUtrF nf klfkfrIaF krno nhIN tdy. awj dy sfzy sB qoN mihMgy icqyry isDfrQ dI ies ikqfb vfsqy AucycI bxfeI qsvIr nf pRkfk ny aYsIaF klfkfrIaF kIqIaF ik srvrk dy icqR dy Qwly inwkf-inwkf iliKaf sI icqRkfr df nF hI nhIN piVHaf jFdf.

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